Turkey: Hagia Sophia should not be converted to a Mosque  

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Dr. Mike Ghouse, Washington, DC

President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is considering converting the Hagia Sophia to a Mosque, which has been a museum since its conquest. As Muslims, we appeal to President Erdogan to keep it as a Museum, and not convert it to a Mosque.

“Hagia Sophia was one of the largest Christian Cathedral in the Eastern Roman Empire for 1000 years, and is one of the most contested buildings and is creating controversy again.” Aljazeera. Indeed, it will create animosity between Islam and Christianity.

The idea of converting Hagia Sofia to a mosque offers a short-term political gain, but at the cost of long-term harmony between Muslims and Christians.

The role of Muslims is to mitigate conflicts and nurture goodwill – a formula embedded in Prophet’s actions; he was a blessed peacemaker. Islam means peace, and it behooves us to achieve peace and harmony through our actions and words.

The Greek Orthodox Church mourns the loss of their Church to Muslim conquest; however, they have accepted it. If this is converted to a mosque, it amounts to rubbing salt on the wounds. It will rekindle hostilities that none of us want. Today, the societies are moving towards respecting the otherness of the others.

Hazrat Umar  the second Calif of Islam set a great example – after conquering Jerusalem, he was offered to pray in the Holy Sepulcher. He chose not to pray inside the church for the concern that the future generation of Muslims will convert it into a Mosque.

Quran 22:40 essentially says God’s name is extolled abundantly in Churches, Synagogues, and Mosques. We have to protect the places of Worship. God will most certainly assist him who succors His cause: verily, God is all-knowing and almighty.

The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) has paved the way for building bridges among different communities in the United States. It is the largest Muslim civic body in America. It maintains good relationships with all populations, including the Greek Orthodox hierarchy. ISNA has played Amin’s role in building a cohesive America and has earned the goodwill of Jews, Christians, Hindus, and others. Out of a sense of righteousness, they have stood up for Muslims against Islamophobic rhetoric during 9/11, and it continues today. We, the Muslims, appreciate them.

Dr. Sayyid M. Saeed, President of ISNA, said, “The conversion of the Hagia Sophia was against the historical examples set by the righteous Caliphs, beginning with Abu Bakr when he advised his general heading to conquer foreign lands. The Umayyad Caliphs apologized and paid for the church land used to build the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.

As American Muslims, we celebrate this Islamic provision in US law that enabled us to build 3 thousand mosques in the last half a century. Hagia Sophia is not just a Church but the main symbol of the Greek Orthodox Church. It is a slap on the entire system of the Greek Orthodox Church and Greece. It fostered permanent hate against Muslims and Islam in those quarters.”

Dr. Saeed further adds, “The destruction of the Babri Mosque in India is a historical example of religious bigotry. We cannot do the same thing to Hagia Sophia.”

Indeed, we have to be consistent in our policies – if we apply it in one place, we must be able to use it in every situation. As an Indian American Muslim, it hurts me to see the destruction of the Babri Mosque, and it equally hurts me to see the Hagia Sophia converted to a Mosque. We have to set an excellent example for the world. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, let Hagia Sophia be one as well.

We urge President Erdogan to consider the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, who was and is a mercy to mankind. He granted permanent protection to places of Worship in the covenant he issued in 628 AD. A majority of Muslims believe in the sanctity of the location of Worship. We hope President Erdogan can be a catalyst in correcting false perceptions about Muslims and not convert Hagia Sophia into a Mosque. The majority of Muslims will applaud him for walking on the right path. May God bless him.


Dr. Mike Ghouse is the founder and president of the Center for Pluralism. He is a speaker, thinker, author, community consultant, pluralist, activist, newsmaker, and an interfaith wedding officiant. Mike is deeply committed to Free speech, Human Rights, and Pluralism in Religion, Politics, Societies, and the workplace. He has dedicated his life to building cohesive societies and offers pluralistic solutions to the media and the policymakers. More about him at www.TheGhousediary.com.

149 thoughts on “Turkey: Hagia Sophia should not be converted to a Mosque  

  1. Hazrat Umar was very wise. He could visualize the nature of coming
    generations of Muslims. They would not realize that Jesus Christ was
    buried in that Church. They would only see that the Caliph Umar
    prayed inside. I wish our national leaders had that vision and
    compassion of Hazrat Umar.

    1. Your prayer for Muslims is best one. But your comment that Jesus Christ is buried in that Church is not correct. As Muslims believe and has been stated clearly in quran jesus never died and had been ascended to heavens.

      1. Allahu Akbar. This is great news. Al of you ignorant who has no idea what the heck you are talking about jus sit the h*** up. If you think you are Muslim and you are mad that this was turned it masjid and you would rather it returns back to be a church and a place hosting shirk then I can tell you that your imaan is in question and you should re-evaluate it with a true scholar who fears Allah. Shame on you! Don’t you see that this a time where people of falsehood have come together against Islam. You sit here with alL audacity to criticize turning a museum or even a church into masjid in a country majority of its people are Muslim? Are you insane? Do you think you know better than the thousands and thousands of Muslim scholars throughout the ages who approve such thing? Why am I talking to ignorants like you who never bothered to open a book of classical knowledge to learn their deen. Rather they learn it from Facebook and YouTube. Grow up and go learn.

        1. Add to that that Muhammad alfatih when he conquered Constantinople he bought the church from its owners and the deed of that sale was the main document that made the Supreme Court of Turkey rule out in the favor of turning it as a masjid as the heirs of muhamamd Alfatih asked for that.

          1. This is the point of law. Unlike the propaganda found on Wikipaedia and in the news, Sultan Mohammed Al Fatih purchased the Hagia Sophia and turned it into a Masjid with charity (waqf) for all muslims to pray, thereby giving himself a sadaqa jaariya (continuous charity). It was the traitor Atta Turk who broke the law by converting it into a museum which was not owned by the Turkish government and its return to a Masjid is a legally sound judgement.

            What a great leader, politician and muslim was Sultan Mohammed al Fatih. It is a shame to see Muslims criticising one of our greatest leaders and politicians about whom the Prophet Mohammed praised in his prophecy 600 or so years before the emancipation of Constantinople.

          2. Please provide me link of that he bought the church or something like that i have to show somebody

          3. i found in the wikipedia Arabic version, stated that the Sultan bought it:

            صوفيا (بالتركية: Aya Sofya)‏ هو مسجد تاريخي مشهور في الضفة الأوروبية من مدينة إسطنبول، وقد كان كاتدرائية أرثوذكسية شرقية سابقًا ثم اشتراها السلطان العثماني محمد الفاتح وحولها إلى مسجد ودفع الثمن كاملا من حرّ ماله للرهبان الأرثوذكس، ليوقفه والأراضي المحيطة به وما عليها من مبانٍ لصالح المسلمين في كافة أنحاء العالم الإسلامي

            https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A2%D9%8A%D8%A7_%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%A7

            translation: Aya Sofia is a famous historical mosque on the European bank of Istanbul. It was a former Eastern Orthodox cathedral that the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed al-Fatih bought and converted into a mosque and paid the full price of his free money to the Orthodox monks, to stop him and the lands surrounding it and its surroundings. Buildings for the benefit of Muslims throughout the Islamic world

          4. When Sultan Mehmet conquered Constantinople at the age of 21 and ended the Byzantine Empire in 1453, he purchased the property of #HagiaSophia from his personal wealth before converting it into a masjid. The details of the transaction are still stored in Turkish museums, as can be seen in the photo.
            This is the main reason why the court ordered Aya Sofya to be re-converted to a masjid. Therefore, the credit really goes to the forward thinking of Sultan Mehmet, the conqueror of Constantinople for purchasing the church and then creating a waqf (endowment)!!!
            Had it not been for his wisdom, Kemal Ataturk’s decision would not have been able to be legally overturned. Sultan Mehmet’s wisdom conquered Kemal Ataturk

        2. Im glad you approve. I now approve of israeli settlements in palestine and the demolishing of the al aqsa mosque to rebuild solomons temple.
          I now support european far right anti muslim parties and the removing of muslims from christian lands and all the benefits they receive from the christian tax payer. I no longer support aid for muslim refugees from yemen, syria, libya, iraq and kashmir. I now believe iran should be destroyed after further sanctions are slapped on them.

          1. Al-Aqsa Mosque belongs to Muslims only, we have not sold it to Jewish/Israel, Morover, Sultan Mohammed Al Fatih purchased the Hagia Sophia and than turned it into a Masjid. The enemy will definitely not be able to achieve the desired result on the issue of Palestine and Palestine will be liberated soon InshAllah.

        3. Do you want to say that majority has a right to take away places of worship from minorities.
          Great understanding……..

          1. Absolutely right want Islamic state across BUT not applicable when Muslims are in minority.
            There they want Secularism with Equal Rights, how much hypocrites, conspirators.
            Concept is …..
            When in majority covert all for Islam by all means, coercion, threat, force, luring, jihad etc.,etc.
            When in minority and majority is divided as in India , go on protesting politically to post fear in majority and go on increasing population till 51% of population and then follow first step.
            When in minority and majority is united then surrender and even agree to what the majority say e.g. Australia, NewZealand , USA etc. Wait for appropriate time to raise the voice globally a Victim Card.

        4. Jesus Christ was not buried in Hagia Sophie. Wherever did you get that information from I wonder? In response to Hagia Sophia being turned into a mosque, I can only say one thing: in one careless and arrogant move, Erdogan has condemned Islam to eternal contempt by the Christian world. If it was in the Hellenic DNA to insult, we could easily do the same: seize every mosque in our country and turn it into a disco, as our religion forbids us to worship in a mosque. I feel sure that the Islamic world would feel insulted by this move, yet many muslims around the world celebrated this move, while the good muslims whom keep insisting that Islam is the religion of peace, did absolutely nothing to stop it. This move will have a very bad ending for Turkey because Erdogan has not only angered the Greek Orthodox but the Russian Orthodox and Putin is not a man to be insulted. Turkey should be nervous. Very nervous.

        5. Fact! Hagia Sofia was Byzantine and Eastern Greek Orthodox, when it was built.
          Fact! Constantinople was part of the Eastern Roman Empire and Hagia Sophia was built by a Christian Emperor.
          Fact! It was designed by a Greek and built by a Greek
          Fact! Its design and architectural style was emulated by Ottoman mosques a thousand years later. It was the inspiration for the Blue Mosque. Poor Turks: you couldn’t even come up with a design of your own.
          Fact! Constantinople was always Greek. It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire headed by Sultan Mehmet who had a lot more respect than you or your current leader have.
          This is not a matter of knowing better than thousands of muzzo schollar throughout the ages. The dates of design, construction, ownership and conquer are all set in stone. Nothing your scholars can ever say, would change the history, which has obviously been distorted in your shrunken mind Please go back to the history books and do your research before you speak. it is always a mistake when a Turk speaks without thinking. Just look at Erdogan. Every time he opens his mouth, he alienates Turkey from yet one more country.

          Personally, I propose that Greece seize all places of islamic worship and turn them into discos or bars. Then let me hear you say anything about turning a mosque into a disco in a country where the majority of the people are Greek Orthodox. Shame on you! You are everything that is wrong with Islam.

          1. Excellent presentation of Facts !
            Similar situation in India where almost all mosques were built by destroying Hindu Temples . Recent example Lord Rama Mandir where an invader, raper , cruel terrorist Babar converted it into mosque. The terrorist Babar is being worshipped as Osama Bin Laden by radical Indian Muslims to praise terrorism.
            Evidence – no middle east country you will find the good design and architecture , I personally toured and found none of their historic building worthy to see.
            Mosques are places where Radical Muslims gather to protest, agitate, plan for terrorist political activity. Dares Islam to establish Shariya law across the world , western countries should ban entry of Muslims and control their population to save the country.

    2. INCORRECT: Jesus Christ is not buried in the church. This has never been true and is a completely and categorically false statement.

      1. The mosque of Cordoba originally had a church at that spot! So it was originally a church that should been protected.

        1. Agreed, but why were 699 other mosques were converted into churches after reconquesta? Or why were almost every mosque was converted to a church after treaty of Lausanne and subsequent population exchange between Greece and turkey. We muslims never had a problem with that as there are many Muslims left in Greece, similarly you should just shut the fuck up since there are not many Greek Orthodox Christians left in turkey and the state has complete authority to utilise any building for any purpose in the country.

          1. It is safe to say that places of worship need to be respected and not treated merely as property that can be sold/bought as the meaning it gives people runs deep, leaving indelible impressions for generations. Our deeds will ripple through the years to come. We don’t like it when its done to us, hence, we must not disregard others.

          2. Why Islamic countries do not give Citizenships to Muslims and why Muslims want to settle down in Western countries ? Because they want to establish Darul Es Salaam in world to eliminate other religions of world as mentioned in Quran and Hadith.
            Challenge if any Muslims can deny this Fact and Truth!

    3. Mr Ghouse, please do not quote the example of Hazrat Umar, is you do not know the context behind it. It’s completely permissible to convert a church into a mosque if the same has resulted through a conquest where the non Muslim side has not agreed upon a treaty with the Muslim to accept Islamic rule. When Hazrat Umar conquered Jerusalem, the non Muslims entered upon a treaty with the Islamic caliphate and therefore granted the status of Dhimmis, i.e protected, hence it was not correct to offer prayer in the church in that particular case. However, this is not applicable to the conquest of Constantinople, therefore the new ruler had the right to take decisions accordingly. As far as the animosity between Christians and Muslims are concerned, why don’t you urge Greece to reconvert the mosques that were converted to churches after treaty of Lausanne. Are we muslims claiming back those mosques? No, we are not. The treaty of Lausanne already facilitated the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923 and Greeks have either demolished or converted hundreds of mosques in Greece. Why can’t we muslims do the same, when there is hardly 0.0001%greek orhthodox left in turkey? Grow up, your article is nothing but the result of an incomplete knowledge of Quran, Hadith and history.

      1. Hundreds of churches in US and Europe were purchased by Muslims in the last 50 years from their congregations who owned the property. Most of them sold the buildings to move to bigger newer buildings.
        Christianity doesn’t have same rules about places of worship like Islam has. So it’s perfect legal and ok for their culture to sell a church building for some other use including use as masjid.
        I myself have lived in two cities in US where churches purchased were repurposed and used as masjids.
        So purchase of masjid by Sultan Muhammed II of a church building with his own private money not the money of the state was correct by both seller and purchaser. It here is nothing wrong with putting it back in the private trust as per use restrictions given in the waqf. The Turkish state had no business upsurping private property of a private waqf and converting it to a museum. Also such repurposing is not allowed in Islam

      2. This is sheer anti-Christian propaganda. Greece has never converted mosques into churches . Our religion expressly forbids us to worship in a converted mosque of ANY description. Please do your research before posting up such inflammatory comments. Enjoy your new mosque. To the rest of the world, Aghia Sophia will always be Christian in the eyes of the world and nothing Erdogan can go, will ever change this. Your victory will be short lived.

  2. I have already sent a message to that effect to Turkey ! The Quran Prohibits the Destruction of Houses of Worship. The Cleansing of the precincts of Kaba and the destruction ofthe Houses of Perfidy and Evilin TAIF and elsewhere were special events , commanded by God , AlMighty and Wise is HE .
    The Great Conqueror Suliman made an Error in converting the Church into a Mosque , the Ummah needs to correct the error and Deliver the Church to its Rightful Owner . This is the meaning of Haq Ul Ibad ? That the Kafir has converted the mosques in Khurtuba and in Moscow to Church is NO excuse for the Ummah to emulate the Kafir . Otherwise We are No different to Them !
    We must Desist from Entering the Hole the Kafir Enters ?

    1. ‘The quran prohabits destruction of place of worship’than why thousands of Hindu and Buddhist temples were demolished by Muslim conqurers past in india Pakistan , Afganistan and Bangladesh.

      1. Hindu kings against tipu sultan also destroyed hindu temples. And even looted thrm.it was tipi sultan who had then rebuilt

        1. Whenever there is a unrest in a Muslim country I am baffled that people flee or seek asylum in faraway Europe , America , Canada or Australia ignoring nearby Muslim countries. Not a single instance I have seen or heard were the people seek asylum or refugee status in Saudi or any Muslim majority country .

          This is height of hypocrisy …..

          1. Shantidoots are too big conspirators, liars . Radical Muslims want whole world to be Islamic so deliberately migrating to Western world to start Islamisation. Darul e-Islam. Gajwa e Hind concept. Why they hate Modiji, RSS and Hindus because they demand Hindu rashtra as equal to Islamic country ? Whole world has understood and now preventing their entry.

          2. How many refugees are in turkey right now? About 3.5 million! Care to update your post with a few facts

      2. Quote with historical facts and evidences list the destroyed places of worship.
        Dont just get influenced by saffron hate mongers.
        Had moslims been on that path their population would have been. 85$% and not 16%.
        Suffice to prove after 8 centuries moslim rule india still has a largest non moslim population.
        And Brahims manipulative politics make them at helm of affairs.

        1. Was RSS present in Bamiyan when Buddha statues were bombed or right wing Jews and Christians involved in destruction of temples in Syria. They are very recent events and well documented.

          This very denial of history of non tolerance towards other faith has confused a vast majority of Muslims .

          The region of India Pakistan Bangladesh and Afghanistan combined has largest concentration of Muslim population. And going by your logic then Zoroastrians must have been forcefully converted to Islam as there is hardly any left in Iran and Iraq now. The same hold good for turkey as there is hardly any Christians left there.

        2. Hate mongers, Islamophobic , Racists etc.etc., against RSS and Hindus ? will you please quote numbers of Terrorists attacks made across the world ? Concept of Kaafir in Quran , Darul eIsalm

      3. Islam prohibits places of worship not the idol worship. No rational person agree to worship stones and idols and justify them as gods…..

        1. rational people don’t believe in the Virgin birth,or the Night Journey, they believe in science. Your so called scholars abandoned science around the 14th century, at that time christian scientists undertook the reformation in western Europe, the Muslim empire faded and Christians have been in charge ever since. Rational people understand science and are not held hostage to ancient beliefs.

        2. And No Rational Person will agree with Quran that Kaafir to be killed if they do not accept Allah as only God on earth.
          No rational person will not agree with many quotes and stories mentioned in a book, like marrying a six years old girl, earth is flat and Sun takes round the earth, establish Islamic rule across the world. All Islamic countries to be secular in present world or NOT ? Be Rationale and Scientific and Logical.
          Which BLACK STONE in KAABA in Saudi Arabia is worshipped , touched and kissed by Muslims in Makkah ? Why to pray in a Mosque build with stones if Allah/God is present everywhere.

    2. Don’t be silly, Sultan had bought it from his own wealth and endowed to Ummah then only converted it into a mosque .
      Ask those greedy Christians why did they sell the cathedral?

  3. Muslims should stop being hypothetical. It was a church from start should be allowed to remain as church.
    If that what Turkey is doing is right, Muslims shouldn’t opposed Babri mosque status change.
    Its all status quo pro case ,and Christians has documented proof of it, being a church. If they convert it to Mosque, it only will rise anti muslim sentiments world wide. And what is need of another mosque, as only 35% of their population observe islam. Majority of them are non observing muslim. Under Erdogan, enthicity proud has jumped.

    1. According to the government, 99.8% of the Turkish population is Muslim (although some sources give a slightly lower estimate of 96.1 percent) with the most popular school of thought (madhab) being the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam.
      There are also a minority of Sufi and non-denominational Muslims.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Turkey

    2. Even ”non-observing Muslims” are simply Muslims at heart; as they only believe in One Almighty God!

      They do not believe in billions of different Gods of all species, human, animal, sun, moon, snake, trees, elephant, ladies, demons, witches, planet Mangal, 1 headed, 3 headed, 9 headed, etc,etc !

      http://www.islam-guide.com

      1. Now that’s true colour. This is the respect you carry for other people’s religion. You must have been taught and fed this way from your scientific schools. In heart you all have no respect for other religion , their beliefs and customs.

        Only common trait I find among you people is “ victimhood “. Were in power you are victims of America and European Akka Christians and were in minority you are victims of majority like Christians, Hindus and Buddhist. You all are fed with all sorts of conspiracy theories against Muslims as such the whole world has nothing better to do other than devising plans against Muslims .

        If percentage of population of particular faith is the the reason for allowing a place to be allowed to be converted then can you tell me what was the percentage of Christians and Muslims in Constantinople when it was first converted to mosque..

        A community or a nation is remembered for its contributions and the resulting benefits to humanity and nature. Take time and think about it , travel around the world and see for yourself as to what you people are remembered for in general.

        The nations you all hate the most are the ones you all are dying to settle. Such blatant hypocrisy can be seen from naked eyes .

        1. They are all basically Genetically DNA driven Radical Islamic Terrorism from Wahabi Tribes who even killed the Mohammed nawase in morning prayer in masjid only , Fatma and their relatives in krbla fight.
          The only Islamic perception is that Muslims are the best human beings are born to rule all others in the world.
          The difference is only in degree of acceptance , partial, half way and full as in ISIS, Terrorists groups. Every time, any time, any place only Muslims, Muslims and Muslims only. A Big Non sense.

    3. First of all, you have used the wrong word. You used the word “hypothetical” when you should have used the word “hypocritical”. The Hagia Sophia was a mosque/masjid from 1453-1923. Secular-extremist turned it into a museum out of hatred for Islam.

        1. Hindu kings against tipu sultan also destroyed hindu temples. And even looted them.it was tipu sultan who had then rebuilt…. masjid barbri ring any bells???

        2. 1-It was a divine inspiration:

          Before describing the rationale behind this married relation, let it be known that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) married Sayyida Aisha not of his own desire rather it was a Divine inspiration. Read the following Hadith;

          Narrated ‘Aisha:

          That the Prophet said to her, “You have been shown to me twice in my dream. I saw you pictured on a piece of silk and some-one said (to me). ‘This is your wife.’ When I uncovered the picture, I saw that it was yours. I said, ‘If this is from Allah, it will be done.” {Bukhari :: Volume 5 :: Book 58 :: Hadith 235}

          2-It was not out of his physical desires:

          The Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not marry Sayyidah Aisha out of his physical desires. One need to note that for first 54 years of his life he had only one wife. His only wife till 50th year of his life was Sayyida Khadija. He spent his entire youth with her and she was a two time widowed woman, 15 years elder to him. For next four years his only wife was Sayyidah Sa’uda.

          3-Age of Marriage in Old Ages:

          One must first understand that 1400 years ago was very different than now, times have changed and so have humans. 1400 years ago it was something very common to marry young girls, in fact they were not considered young girls, and rather they were considered young women back then. It is a historic fact that girls from the ages of 9 to 14 were being married in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in fact even in the United States girls at the age of 10 were also being married just more than a century ago.

          Yet with these facts no historian claims that all these people were sick perverts, historians would call anyone who made such a claim to be arrogant and very stupid who has no grasp or understanding of history.

          Even in Indo-Pak Sub-Continent girls used to be married at 12-13 even 50-60 years ago. And those ‘girls’ infact raised much better families. There were less family problems then. A simple analyses of the divorce rate then and know would certainly make it clear that maturity level earlier used to be different i.e. people used to come of age rather quickly.

          4-Child Brides in Byzantine Empire:

          Visit this link to see how common were the child brides in the Byzantine Empire.This article clearly states;”Child brides, whether Byzantines or foreign princesses, were the norm rather than the exception, especially from the late twelfth century”.

          5-The Pagans of the Prophet’s time:

          The fact that it was a completely acceptable thing can also be seen from the response of the pagans at that time. No Muslim or even pagan objected to the marriage because it was widely practiced. And even until today in 3rd world countries (Muslims and non-Muslims), little girls as young as 9 or 10 do get married. Anyway, the reason no one objected was to the Prophet’s marriage was:1-People used to have very short life-spans in Arabia. They used to live between 40 to 60 years maximum. So it was only normal and natural for girls to be married off at ages 9 or 10 or similar.2-Marriage for young girls was widely practiced among Arabs back then, and even today in many non-Muslim and Muslim countries

          6-Engagement with Jubair bin Mutim:

          It ought also be noted that Sayyidah Aisha ( RA) was engaged to Jubayr son of Mut’im before Prophet Muhammed (Peace be upon him. This indicates the age of marriage and engagement in Prophet’s time. However, the engagement was later nullified by Jubayr’s parents due to Abu Bakr (RA) embracing Islam.Doesn’t this indicate there was nothing bad in marrying a 9 year girl at that time?She must have been even younger when she was engaged to Jubair

          7-Sayyidah Aisha was fit for marriage:

          Furthermore as to the Holy Prophet’s marriage with Sayyidah Aisha, something people will notice is that the completion of the marriage was done when Sayyidah Aisha was 9 years old, not when she was 6, and there is a reason for that.

        3. Yes, prophet Muhammad(S.A.W) did marry to 6 years old girl want to know who else he got married to? let me tell you,

          40 years old woman who was widow twice.
          Married to zainab whose husband had been killed in the battle was facing hard time.
          Married to Juwayriyyah who was in her late 30s in order to free slaves.
          Married to Ayesha(R.A) when she was 6 years old and marriage was consummated at the age of 9 when she was mature (puberty). Before that Ayesha lived with her family and not with Muhammad.
          Was it because of lust? Or there is some other reasons!! Let me present you with few facts and you can decide by your self.

          Some modern thinking people do relate it to lust when there is much gap between both of them so let me clear this. If it would have related to sex, prophet Muhammad wouldn’t have married to Khadija who was 15 years older to him( she was 40 years old and prophet Muhammad was 25 years old) and who was a widow twice. And between the age of 48 to 57, he did take all the other wives who were all between the age of 36 to 50 except Ayesha (R.A), imagine if it would have related to sex he would have married at the young age OR would have married to young girls. And except Ayesha other wives were widows, devorcee and their marriage reasons were due to circumstances that either due to social reform or political reasons. If you analysis the history of Muhammad about these topics you will understand that each married had some reasons.

          So coming to our main topic, according to the Islamic sharia, the movement girl reaches puberty and boy reaches puberty they can marry if both of them agrees for that marriage.

          Every country has its own law a girl/woman can agree for marriage/consensual sex provided she is of a certain age decided by the law of the land. For example In India the legal age for a girl to get married is 18 where as she is considered mature at the age of 14. That means she can apt for having consensual sex if she is fourteen or above. Similarly, in America girl can marry at age of 16 where as in and in Indonesia minimum marriage age is 19. And why they have chosen such numbers I don’t know, but whats legal in india is ilegal in Indonesia and what is ilegal in india is legal in America. So generally everyone had it’s own criteria.

          And according to islamic shariah as I mentioned above a girl can get married when she reaches her puberty. Hence marriage consummated between Ayesha and prophet muhammad when she reached her puberty that is at the age of 9. All this proves that Prophet Mohammed was a law abiding citizen.

          In the ancient world( back in the time of muhammad (S.A.W) it was normal when a girl gets married at an early age. Because as in india itself around 20 to 24 years back it was perfectly normal when girl gets married at the age of 15 or 16 ( my mom had got married when she was at the age of 16 and my grandmother when she was 13).

          When we reach the history of Ayesha, she was neither forced to get married. She was blessed by Allah that she was so mature and intelligent at an early age and alhamdulillah because of that many hadith were narrated. We never found complaint of Ayesha about prophet muhammad despite of having the age gap, she was said to be most intelligent and most learnt compare to all of other companions as she got training directly by prophet muhammad at an early age. She lived for 50 years after the death of prophet muhammad and other companions kept learning about stories and behaviour of our beloved prophet muhammad from her.

          So I personally feel it’s matter of allah that he chose Ayesha for muhammad and vise versa, and we are nobody to judge, because we can never understand the reasons and secrets behind each and every things with our modern thinking.

          1. Not a logic , scientific and rationale to justify marrying a 9 years old girl to an elder man this reflects poor mind perception set up by radical religious preachings since birth. Unacceptable attitude in modern context.

        4. He didn’t do this,,
          Aysha ra was over 17 years old.. Bczz, her elder sister was 10 years older than her, so when Asma ra was 27/8 Muhammad s married Aysha ra. Means Aysha ra was 17 at leas.
          Asma ra die on 100 years , 75 hizri so means Aysha ra was over 18 when she got Muhammad s..
          Who say Aysha war 9 or somethinglike that all of them are wrong all of them are foolish.

        5. What about your religion? Your god and goddess are involved in fornication, adultery which are mentioned in your holy(!) nasty religious book. You god smuggles. You one god becomes takes revenge from another god. You goddess become naked just like a prostitute in public. You god consumes alcohol. Now you judging other religions.

    4. Muslims did not destroy that church after conqust. But Hindus did in case of Babri Mosque.
      Who cares about Babri Mosque status. It is destroyed and there was no Mandir before it …
      that is known to everyone.

      If the Hindu government even give its status they are not going to rebuild it.

      You have document of Hagia Sofia of being a Church. Yes you have because Muslims did not destroy your document after conquest of Constantinople.

      The symbol of Russia that is located in Cremline
      was a mosque. Do you recommend it for using as a mosque again. The Christian ruler destroyed many mosque in Tatarastan after conuest. Did Muslims did the same after conquest of Constantinople, Jerusalem ( by Umar or by Salahuddin ).

      The Ottomans ruled east europe for about 500 years. Didn’t they build mosque in Ethens.
      Where are these mosques now???

      Don’t be double standard .

      1. For those who think Islam and Muslims are a noble lot
        a. Go see how the oldest temple of Hindus was destroyed by Aurangazeb and the Gyanvapee mosque built over it. The foundation easily shows a temple structure even today
        b. Go see the Quwat ul Islam mosque built from the demolition of a Jain temple, near Hauz Khas, Delhi
        Go read how the Somnath temple was raised 7 times by looters from Afghanistan.

        The barbaric tendencies of Muslims from Afghanistan and Central Asia is quite open

        1. Lol! And, the barbaric tendencies of the Hindus from the 4 corners of India is quite open now, for all to see.

          1. Yes the world sees that and compares that with peaceful nature of followers of religion of peace every where in the world.

        2. Yes, and we should have fucked all of you in the ass during our 800 year of rule, instead We let you live and thrive mate, when we could have slaughtered you like cattles. So, just shut the fuck up and stop preaching about barbarism to Muslims, when your own people are beating up Muslims to death in the name of cow, in every corner of your country.

          1. Yes, you guys are fucked by your Arab masters ..who made you their slaves and that’s why you become muslims. Continue with your Jihad the whole world is watching ….”religion of peace” …ha ha hi hi

      2. Totally False narrative. Truth and Fact is ……
        Temple was broken down by a Muslim cruel Invader and Lootera , Babar, who looted India and destroyed many temples and converted into anti-Islamic mosques. The remains of temple were found beneath disputed structures by Archeological Survey and many international institutes as evidences on which verdict came, so it was a symbol of Muslim antiIslamic principle.
        If you accept or not, the H.Ali , Ftma, IH killings during morning prayer in a mosque in Krbla.
        Radical Muslims started from there and still majority following it.
        So one can very well imagine about the people of other faiths would have suffered.

    5. Lol, so a Christian gets a church a hindu gets his temple and a Jew gets his synagogue after destroying multiple mosques, but a Muslim cannot convert a church into a mosque in a country where there is literally no Christian population. Do me a favour mate, just shut the fuck up.

    6. What’s the need of demolishing a mosque and building your temple when there are literally millions of temples in your country? Do you even think people of your religion are even eligible to talk on this issue? Stop being a two faced hypocrite .

      1. Because it was no mosque. A place to pray and not a house of Allah as false narrative because he is present all over and every where.
        It was built by destroying the Temple that too where Lord Rama was born. Babar , an invader, looter, attacker did it. Same importance as Kaaba in Saudi Arabia. The need to build. Fully eligible to talk this issue. Unfortunately shantidoots even not accept the Court verdict from heart but as compulsion only.
        Two faced hypocrite ? only you people have e.g. no Shantidoots country is secular and democratic , why ?
        Ummah concept over and above Nations and other religions, e.g. if a shantidoot make a crime against non shantidoot , support only to shantidoot like support to aatankwadis , criminals, antinational and antisocial elements, people throw stones on Police, Army in cover up of religion only. Even a shantidoot make no stone unturned to divide and defame Hindus , hatred RSS because they oppose Islamic Country India and demand Hindu rashtra.
        Don’t understand why you people shy of accepting truth and facts.
        Why there is no movie or serial on Islam and Prophet to let the people know ?
        I know now I will face abuses, andhbhakt, and lot of adjectives now!

    7. Hundreds of churches were sold by congregations in US and Europe to Muslims for making Masjids. It’s legal in their religious system. In most cases the moved to newer bigger places or places more convenient to their congregation. Similarly Sultan Muhammed II purchased the dilaphated and broken down church building from it’s owner with his private money and made a trust enabling general Muslim population to pray in it. No other use is permitted as per the endowment not sale.
      Also Islam doesn’t give full ownership to any category or group of Muslims over a building which is designated as Masjid. They cannot sell it or use it for other purposes apart from masjid. They can allow other permitted activities there but the primary purpose of worshipping cannot be stopped or inconvenced.. so a Muslim can but a property and endow bit to a trust to use it as masjid but once established as masjid no Muslim can sell it or stop prayers there.

    8. Rather you’re behaving hypocritical by not looking at the sale-deed of the cathedral by the Byzantinians to Sultan. After buying he had every right to do with the asset.
      First you must know the rules of the war. After conquest every asset of the looser becomes the booty of the winner even in today’s civilized world. I think, It would’ve been better had Sultan usurped it which is also allowed for the conqueror in Islam.
      But when a treaty is inked between both belligerents, then only it becomes duty of both the parties to behave accordingly.
      You may analyse the issue more logically if you listen to the clip below.

      https://youtu.be/FN486aRLyfU

    1. I wish the Hindus of India should have risen against the destruction of Babri Masjid like they are defending Hagia Sophia’s status of a church. And even after the destruction, they should have objected to building of a temple there. But when it comes to Muslim’s defence, they are silent.

      1. Hindus are trying to defend the True Islamic Principles which are hijacked by the Radicals. No Muslim should use power to destroy symbols of other religion as evidenced in history.
        Read todays Arab News column of Saudi Arabia.
        Muslims should forego the religious Egoism that all Muslims follow True Islam and there can never be a Black Sheep among them.

        1. Whatever you say doesn’t apply to bought up property. Cathedral was sold to Sultan by by the Byzantinians as hundreds of churches in US, UK and several other countries have been bought by the Muslims to convert them into mosque.
          But you’ll be unable to cite a single mosque which had been sold for any purpose in the entire muslim era of 14+ centuries.

  4. Hagia Sophia was a church before muslims conquered Constantinople in 1453.It was built around 537AD which means it was a church for nearly 1000years. Its not a question of all masjids its a question of one structure which was a church and later converted into a masjid and again after 1923 into a museum by Atheist Ataturk. My contention is let muslims and christians both pray there.Its a huge structure and can accommodate a masjid and a church.We should not be like those fanatics who demolushed our masjid in Ayodhya or like Russians who converted our Masjids into their seat of governance in Moscow.

    1. You are not even Turkish, how do you know that founder of Turkey is an atheist??? Did he say something like this? Only God knows who is a real believer.

      1. You do not need to be Turkish to know who the founder of the Turkish Republic is!!!!!! Ataturk was not atheist but he certainly hated many of Islam’s practices like wearing hijab and beard, calling the adhaan, and five daily prayers (to name a few).

      2. It is clear that at best he was a cultural muslim. Allah SWT is the best of Judges. Ataturk will get what is coming to him, just like all of us.

    2. When the Ottoman empire took over Constantinople, the Hagia Sophia had already been abandoned as a church and had fallen into disuse and was known to house squatters, animals and occasionally used as a brothel. I am appalled by the ignorance in most of the comments and by the fact the writer starts the article’s first sentence with a completely false statement.

    3. In Detroit, a Catholic church became abandoned and closed due to lack of parishoners. The parishoners were mostly Polish immigrants who were the predominant population in the area from the late 1920’s until the early 1980’s. As the Polish immigrants assimilated into American society, many Polish-Americans moved out of the neighborhood. In the late 1980’s, immigrants from Yemen, Kossovo, Bosnia and other North African countries begin to move in to the neighborhood. They are mostly Muslim. They bought St.Leo’s Church from the Archdiocese of Detroit and now it is a masjid(mosque) called Muath bin Jabal. There was no war, persecution or other malicious act to bring about the change of the building from being St.Leo’s Church to Masjid Muath bin Jabal. The change was the same in Constantinople, a demographic change which also aided the Ottoman conquest of 1453. The western corporate-based media is helping to misinform and spread lies for political reasons. Anyone who lives in istanbul knows that there is no longer a Christian community in the Beyoglu district of Istanbul. The fact that Erdogan wants to open the museum up as a masjid again is purely to ease overcrowding during Friday prayers in a predominantly Muslim neighborhood/city. Any other idea about this situation is purely a cloak to hide the international phenomenon of Islamophobia.

    4. This is a good solution. However why would Erdogan do this? He only wants to score political points. Ataturk did many great things for Turkey Erdogan is destroying them.

  5. I am a muslim and I believe it is the right of orthodox Christians to have hagia Sofia back as a church. Turkey should give it back to eastern orthodox Christians. It is the right thing to do

    1. The Turkish republic has every sovereign right to do what it pleases with the Hagia Sophia. An important fact is that there is no longer a Christian community in the Beyoglu district of Istanbul. When surveyed across Turkey, as in most of the world today, fewer than 10% of the world’s Christians attend any church every Sunday. The Hagia Sophia is the property of the Turkish Republic just as the Alhambra is the property of Spain.

      1. It’s not property if Turkish republic. It is the property of the private waqf ( endowment/trust) of Sultan Muhammed II who purchased an abandoned and dilapidated church building from it’s rightful and legal owners with his private money ( not state money. He made the repairs and added to it and endowed it to a trust. The Turkish republic can control the trust or appoint someone to oversee the working of the trust but can’t take ownership of the trust. The endowment specifically prohibits change of use of the building or sale of the building.

    2. Hagia Sofia should be converted into a mosque. And don’t think that christians and news will be happy with you If Turkey doesn’t convert it into mosque. They are always been enemy of Muslims and Islam. Quran say, لن ترضى عنك اليهود و لا النصارى حتى تتبع ملتهم.
      Means Jews and Christians will never be happy with you untill you accept their religion. So as a human we should have good relationship with all mankind and in terms of religion we should be concerned that they may not be ours as they are to owns. don’t be so sluggish and don’t fear anyone except Allah. He will reside us on this land if we been true slaves to him.

      1. We agree with u….they hindi shaheed our masjid when we spoke they noticed we are not on right….Hagia Sofia انشاللہ become MASJID when Muslim INSHALLAH THEN BE READY ALLAH WILL DO THAT

    3. There is no Christian community in the Beyoglu district of Istanbul to give the church back to!!!!!!!!!!!!!! What the Orthodox Church is stating is very childish (if I can’t have it, no one can!’). This is silly. A building should be used by a community and not be held empty for political reasons or held on to as a statement of power. The building should be used for a masjid in a predominantly Muslim neighborhood/city that experiences chronic overcrowding during Friday prayers. If we go by the logic that a building should be returned to it’s original community, then most of the world’s buildings would be under the authority of communities no longer present in that area/country.

  6. Over-reactors and giving false references to support their cause!

    It takes immense stupididty to compare Holy Sepulchre in a volatile place like Jerusalem to the Hagia Sophia in peaceful Istanbul!

    Erdogan definitely has more wisdom and courage than Prof Ghouse(who is probably getting over-confident).

    Erdogan as leader of his nation Turkey has complete right to peacefully start Muslim prayers in the Museum with consensus of people.
    It is not a church for years now, it has also been a mosque for many years.

    Prof, always be fair and Balanced….don’t get too carried away to score brownie points for continuing luxury of life in U.S.

    It’s high time Jews and Christians showed some Humanity in their conjoint barbarism and Islamophobia in holy Jerusalem and oppressed Palestine; before crying over small issues in Turkey!

    1. Totally agreed. The professor is mixing up things very smartly. Well, thats why they call him professor I believe but yes you have rightly said the matter of hagia sophia is the right of turkey government and is a sovereign issue.

  7. Kindly, don’t make such demands as others are not listening howsoever liberal you become. Be Muslim at all time and all phases. We are at downside in most of the part of the world. Jews, Christians, Hindus, Budhhisht no one considering you (Muslim) valuable enough to walk on this earth. By sharia also if one place is converted to masjid then it cannot be converted to anything else. We muslims are in miserable condition in India watching a masjid to be converted to a mandir. I think you should raise other important issues rather being Liberal.

    1. Actually bro these stupid Hindus always try to interfere in Muslims matters and these hindus opinions doesn’t even matter lol

  8. Spain converted mosques into Church’s no one questioned in india mosques converted into temple that time all liberals are dead

    1. Thanks for your Truth PATH way …when Muslim doing something …then these ajent wake up they know what they are doing ….they hide every thing

  9. While I do not support the breaking down of Babri Masjid structure, I also must point out that not a single person here is criticising the deduction of so many temples in India by Muslim invaders and kings.

    1. Name one mandir in India that was originally a temple and was then used as a mosque! This is nothing but another lie! A hindu temple could not be used as a mosque because it does not face Makkah. Removing the graven images on a mandir would require undue time, effort and energy. That is why masjids were built instead of using a building not fit for use.

      1. a. The Gyanvapee mosque in Banaras built over the Kashi Vishwanath temple
        b. The Quwat ul Islam mosque built over a Jain temple, near Hauz Khas Delhi
        What are you talking?

    2. Most of those temples were destroyed and looted by hindu kings.mainly after bieng defeated by tipu sultan. Who apparently never existed.

    1. Well Jesus will be buried in a Mosque. The Most holiest one : )

      Secondly , most people do not know (if they haven’t visited) that on the reverse side-enterence of the building complex there is already a Mosque since decades. In front of it (blue mosque) on it’s right is another Pasha mosque about 5 mins walk. It’s so peaceful and there is so much demand and need for more prayer space when tourist season is booming that’s why probably the hall is Needed. Jumah prayer is full easily everywhere else. Nevertheless the museum part should stay too in my personal opinion. What a good/kind proposal.

  10. It should be a Masjid…. With out any doubt… When Babri masjid can be converted to temple…. When Palestine can be Israel then Hagia Sofia should be a Masjid Again…. and it will be soon InShaAllah.

    1. As the turkey govt. has a right of its nationwide worship places,it can easily applicable to covert hagia Sophia into mosque too. The Christian churches are only making noise because it’s a decision finalised by the ever true-faith and sunni Muslim leader racep tayeeb erdogan. He is one who always with depressed group of Muslim of Syria and Kashmir in all international assembly, be it even general assembly of UN.
      Alhamdulillah the decision taken by him cannot lead to any conflict between two group. And that’s my humble request to Christian to be cool and remember those moment when Muslims and Christians both of them has converted their worship to the worship of conquers. So that’s a way which is invented by you.and now when we are doing the same you have done with jeruslm you naming it “rubbing the salt on wounds”.that’s not right anymore.

      Love you Turkish people .and long live erdogan.

    2. Totally untrue narrative.
      Go and physically verify the facts, 40000 temples were broken down and converted into mosques by Radical Muslims Invaders in India..
      One can still visualise the Hindus idols in wall and hall of the mosques, Muslims are religiously blind to accept the truth and facts.

  11. Did our ancestors in turkey fought for hagia Sophia so that their younger generations could take selfies and post it on Instagram shame on the Muslims who said this that conversion shouldn’t take place

  12. Converting one building into mosque does not add great value to muslim world. More so if such an action makes many human beings unhappy. We should endear people by our actions and not create enemies out of friends. No right thinking muslim desires to get this museum converted into a mosque. We already have enough mosques to pray. Let us not have this mosque at such a great cost.

    1. Dear Abdul Majeed Khan,
      This is not a matter of Mosque or Church. It’s a matter o principle/ right or wrong. Will you say the same thing for Cordoba Mosque, I’m sure you will not. I’m not saying convert Church into a mosque stop being one-sided and apologetic.

      1. Cordoba had a church where the mosque was built! So it was a church before it was a mosque. Haghia Sophia was a church for 1000 years and built as on. The Sultan went against Muhammed’s order of protection and declared it a mosque upon arriving.

  13. How many chrisyians libe in the area of hagia Sofia? When it first git c9nverted into a mosque.it was already a derelict building. Seems chikdish that the christians are saying if we cant have it no one can as someone else typed. Babri mosque india.

  14. Dear Dr. Mike Ghouse,

    I appreciate your words. Can you also raise the question to apply the same logic to Cordoba Mosque in Spain? It was and still, the biggest Mosque in Europe why it was converted to Church, and part of it is used as Museum. Will you raise your voice for this. I’m 1000% sure you will not because if you do so you will be thrown out where you live. You called your self as Muslims and only quoting references where it shows we should not convert Church into Mosque can you also quote where it has said clearly once a place is created as Mosque will also remain a mosque till eternity. People like you have damage Islam and Muslims in Perticuler a lot with apologetic behavior.

    1. O Dr keep in mind with your sentence when MUSLIM SAY INSHALLAH HAGIA SOFIA BECOME MASJID THEN Day WILL COMING ok keep this sentence in Dr library ….don not memorize write or post to wall of your clinik ….MEANING INSHALLAH WORK WILL DONE…
      We will see one day…..

  15. I am muslim but I don’t support the decision by turkey govt converting the museum into mosque. It is Glory of art and part of tourism and cultural heritage. Converting the museum into mosque will create hostility between muslim and Christian. Mosque should be built in other places. We have enough mosque. Instead turkey govt must build some higher class educational institutions. Because all neighbouring countries in Europe has world class educational institutions but turkey don’t have.

  16. Dear Dr Mike Ghouse,
    Then I Think the Muslims should start saying, Muhammad Al-Fatih (or Mehmed Al-Fatih) As TYRANT EVIL SORRY DEVIL RULER on the Earth. Is this what you want from all Muslims around the world who admire the conquest of Constantinople as one of the biggest and toughest victories in the era of Muslim Civilization.
    TELL ME ONE THING WHAT WILL YOU SAY ABOUT THE MOSQUES THAT WERE CONVERTED TO CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES AFTER SHEDDING THE BLOOD OF MUSLIMS IN AL-ANDALUS (SPAIN).

  17. Dear All non muslim friends,
    ONE THING KEEP IN MIND DONT PLAY WITH TURKEY OR PAKISTAN …WHAT THEIR GOVERNMENT WANT THEY WILL DO THAT OR THEY DID AND THEY WILL DOING ON THE WAY OF ALLAH…
    NON MUSLIMS FRIENDS TURKEY IS NOT PALESTINE OR IRAQ WHAT EVER Jewish ,Christian ,American and Isreal what ever u want u did in Palestine THIS ISLAMIC COUNTRY TURKEY 👍INSHALLAH HAGIA SOFIA BECOME MASJID
    I SAYED INSHALLAH BE CAREFUL THIS INSHALLAH WORDS MAKE PERFECT SENSE….

  18. Hagia Sophia has not been a museum since its conquest. It has been a Mosque since 1453 to 1931.It was converted to a Mosque when it was conquered by Fatih Sultan Mehmet and also there is a land register that proves Hagia Sophia Mosque belongs to Fatih so He purchased Hagia Sophia as a private property. This land register can be find in Turkish General directorate of foundations. After 1931 this date it was converted to a Museum illegally and with invalid decree . Therefore President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is not considering converting Hagia Sophia to Museum but to its Origin. As Muslims, we appeal to President Erdogan to convert it to a Mosque as legacy of Fatih Sultan Mehmet , and not keep it as a Museum.

  19. Muslims Brothers, There are fanaticism is there all religious groups. But nature of fanaticism and destruction carried out by followers of Islam in name of Islam is unprecedented. Examples are plenty and unlimited. Playing victim card and blaming Hindus, Christians and every body else will not be much use. Need to focus on your own conduct rather then blaming others become more secular and less fanatic.

    1. Firstly, it is ironic that you are called “arnab.” This is view of one of the most rabidly Islamophobic and hateful news anchor on Indian TV.

      “But nature of fanaticism and destruction carried out by followers of Islam in name of Islam is unprecedented.”

      You think the world does not witness the fanaticism, destructive and genocidal nature of the hindu fundamentalists?

      1. Brother Syed, As I have said fanaticism exist in all institutional religion. And world has witnessed Hindu fundamentalism as well. But only difference is they got much much lesser opportunity to witness in compared to what they witness the followers of Islam did in name of religion for last 1400 years. You are correct my name is “arnab” the same as “Islamophobic” news anchor on Indian TV. Btw did you every tried to find our who are other “Syed” in the world…promise you, you would find many peaceful holly figures … like Syed Haris Ahmed..google google boy..Leave it..what is there in name as said by William Shakespeare!!

      2. Rightly said
        And RSS Hatred, abuses Modiji , AmitShah , Hindus who voted them qualify for Shantidoots characteristics love and peace messages ?
        Telling a Truth and Fact is not Islamophobic statements. Truth is too bitter.
        If Indian Shantidoots oppose Hinuds rashtra but support Islamic state for Pakistan and Kashmir , is it what ?
        Islam Loving Religion or Islam Fearing Religion ?
        Unfortunately never heard of condemning terrorists or discouraging them by Intellectuals shantidoots rather they give illogics to defend it by counter allegations on other religions.

  20. A couple of facts are not properly presented in this article and can lead to a wrong understanding. The matter here is not a conversion of a Church to a Masjid.

    Let’s start with the facts:
    1. Hagia Sophia was a church built around 537AD.
    2. After Constantinople was occupied by the Ottomans, the church was then purchased from its owners as private property. This Sale deed is the basis for the current decision by the Turkish Court.
    3. Modified and used as a Masjid/Mosque from 1453 to 1931.
    4. Closed to the public for 4 years.
    5. Converted and reopened as a museum in 1935.
    6. Decision by the Court to use it only as a Museum is revoked. So, it reverts back to being re-used as a Masjid.

    1. History of Christianity tells us that whole of Asia Minor was Christian thanks to the Apostle St Paul who travelled far and wide to establish churches and preach the gospel. unfortunately after 1000 years the entire land with people became Muslims due to the advent of Islamic warriors who never spared the infidels. But, it was the nobility of the Sultan who thought twice before removing the Christian icons. The west diched the Eastern Empire when they were attacked by Turks. Had they helped the Constantinople would not been devastated and the inhabitants converted to Islam on the point of the Sword. All the intellectuals fled the walled city after the Fall of Constantinople and paved the way for Renaissance in Europe which is a blessing in disguise for Science, Arts and Literature.

  21. Can a learned Muslim tell me what the Quran or Hadith actually says about converting a church to a mosque? Thank you.

    1. Hundreds of churches in US and Europe have been sold by their legal owners to Muslims for purpose of using as masjid.
      Of course just because one conquers a land the king does not gain ownership of the entire property. He only gains ownership of the land owned by previous king and the state. Private property remains in private hands. If some churches were owned by the state and if they are being used by Christian’s it’s prohibited to repurpose them into Masjids. However if they are not in use by Christian’s and there are no Christian’s in the area to use it and the property is owned by the state then it can be used as masjid. If the churches are owned by other people like church orders, monks, or other groups then the state can’t take them unless they sell it to them out of free will.

  22. Sultah Fateh Muhammad was purchased this property by his own money and devoted for a Mosque. there are 27000 historical documents showed the ownership of Sultan Empire and the Turkish Court decision was made on that proof. In USA and Europe, churches are sold and converted into Monsques.

    You have no right to comment on Aya Sofia in any regard as this is not your property and the Owner discretion should be treated the last.

    Ata Turk was conveterd into mesum that was not right and it was against the owner discreation.

    https://www.google.com/search?q=aya+sophia+purchase+documents+by+sultan&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwj9otLZ4M7qAhWPBhoKHVncAwsQ2-cCegQIABAC&oq=aya+sophia+purchase+documents+by+sultan&gs_lcp=ChJtb2JpbGUtZ3dzLXdpei1pbWcQAzoECB4QClCPSljBWWDiXGgAcAB4AIAB9AGIAZwQkgEFMC40LjaYAQCgAQE&sclient=mobile-gws-wiz-img&ei=BrMOX_2HGY-NaNm4j1g&bih=718&biw=412&client=ms-android-samsung-gn-rev1&prmd=in

    1. This is false > Constantinople was built on 7 hills > there were 7 churches on these hillS now they are all converted to mosque> are you telling me he bought all these churches with his money > The ottomanS commitEd genocide on the Christian > Hagia Sophia was built before Islam was created > it will remain as a church until the end of time > president Edogan is old and diabetic> soon he will die and the building will still be standing >

    2. A False Narrative to justify a wrong deed.
      Just tell me ant strong reason to tell the adamant , arrogative attitude to offer prayers at Church place only ?
      Only one political reason
      We are the best
      We are the conquerer of the land
      Display supremacy over other religions
      Nothing to do with Allah and True Islamic teachings and principles.
      A Fact !

  23. Hagia Sophia was never bought from the Christians. It was taken from them by force and intimidation.

    Imagine the Jordanian King selling Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem to Israel’s government. Not a single muslim would believe such transaction. The only ones who could possibly accept the transaction are zionists.

    Hagia Sophia was the greatest achievement of Eastern Christianity. Any Christian would prefer to die than to sell it for money. Unfortunately, Turkish islamists condensed fabricated documents which not a single Christian believe it true. Till today turkey doesn’t recognize some of its horrific crimes.

    Sincerely from Lebanon :/

    1. Masjids can’t be sold even by a king. Hagia Sophia was an eastern orthodox church which has looted and burnt 4 times by Roman Catholic crusaders. For some time it was also used as a roman Catholic church. Later it reverted as a eastern orthodox church. At time of conquest it was not in use for years as a church and was broken down and had illegal squatters using it for non church purposes . Sultan Muhammed purchased it mouth under intimidation as conqueror but as a private person from another private entity who was not using it as a church at that time.

  24. Never heard in life a non living item building made of stones can be called as ‘shaheed’ , how come ? Truth is a temple was broken down to build a mosque , the verdict has come on evidences.

    1. The temple that existed for 1000years before Babar at Ayodhya India would have been destroyed to build Babri Mosque as some archeological findings bear witness in Supreme Court of India that permitted the building of Ram temple. Hagia Sophia existed 1000 years before the advent of Islam. Love begets love. Hatred begets hatred.

      1. Absolutely right !
        However, the Radical Mindset always go for forceful conversions.
        This is Truth and Fact but however, Radical Intellectuals always try to defend a wrong act, perception in the name of religion.
        According to Radicals No Muslim can never be a Criminal or do wrong in their life and avoid condemning Osama Bin Laden, Hezoboallah, Muslims Brotherhood, ISIS openly.

  25. Alhamdulillah, I’m glad that some people here pointed the real issue pertaining to Hagia Sofya’s status.

    As observed, this is a legal issue and not religious, political, social, etc. The Court was asked to decide on the legality of conversion by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk. Based on the arguments presented by both parties the Court ruled in favour of the plaintiff that it was illegally converted. The defendant was the State/Govt of Turkey.

    The State accepted the verdict and executed it.

    Based on this principle, it is now up to the Eastern Orthodox Church to petition the Court on the legality of Sultan Muhammad Al Fatih converting the Church to a Masjid.

    UNESCO, scholars, politicians, media, laymen should not be confused and confusing the masses and the the world.

  26. Beautiful excuse and lie to defend a Religious issues in cover up of legal issues.
    Same Turkey supported Pakistan on Religious issues on a legal stand approved by Indian Parliament taken on Kashmir issues to scrap a temporary article 370.
    Pakistan is well known for his Terrorists linkage as Osama Bin Laden found and killed there by USA.

  27. When someone wants to comment on historical places ,& monuments, we should study the history of that perticular place/ places , here in this Matter where the monumental church is converted into Masjid , is purely on the basis of higher court of that country , & the noble judges have taken all the considerations to take this historical judgment. The Govt of that country had given full liberty to discuss all the controversial issues, because it has its own impacts on both the communities, Muslims, as well as Christens
    The policy to do so , is purely based on Quranic codes of life ,& here I want to give the references that , this church & the total land was purchased by the than authorities of that Sulthan ,& paid the price & this property was kept under WAKAF,& the documents were also kept with the authorities of Wakf,& the present external affair minister also declared all the facts in media .
    ——-“”” AYA SOFIA
    Or
    🌹🌹🌹MASJID E AYA SOFIA,
    🌹🌹
    Turkey’s conversion of the famous Hagia Sophia from a Museum into a mosque was condemned by CNN, the Pope etc. (Negara islam lain, as usual, diam saja). Yesterday the Turkish Foreign minister showed proof to justify the change to a mosque…

    L.Abu Bakr Turkey, wrote :

    What attracted my attention most during my research in the case of Aya Sofia is the name of the endowment created by Sultan Muhammad II and recorded and corrected Aya Sofia on his name.

    For those who don’t know.. Sultan Muhammad II, known as (Muhammad Al-Fateh), was insightful and intelligent to witness history and enemy before the beloved, he made a move that has never been repeated in history.

    So that after opening Constantinople, he offered pastors to buy Aya Sofia’s building from his own money, not from the state’s money or from the house of Muslim money, and a personal deal that has nothing to do with his job in the state.

    The deal was documented through a purchase and waiver contract, and payment was proven with payment bonds.
    Directly, may Allah be pleased with him, established a stand (A Waqf) and waived to the waqf his property and the name of the endowment was tipped.

    This is what shook Turkey a few weeks ago to manually review 27 thousand documents, coincidentally found an original title (Tabou) that clearly shows private property ownership.

    Thus, landlords applied for absolute free use of the property as their own, and their request was to return the building to a mosque
    As they used it since the day they bought it.

    But what caught my attention is the name of the endowment created by the Fateh, may Allah be pleased with him and the name (Abu Al-Fath Al-Sultan Muhammad)

    In the photo, the purchase contract and the cue that was found recently.

    Mosques in Spain have been turned into churches, bars and nightclubs ! (Against the peace treaty).

    The Babri Mosque in India turned into a temple of idols !

    They want to transform Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem with all its sanctuaries as the capital of the Zionists !

    We have not heard a Western or Eastern voice condemning these crimes !

    But reverting the Aya Sophia to a mosque exposed the hatred of the mentally eclipsed from the East and the West !!

    The Alhambra Palace Mosque in Granada was converted to the Santa Maria cathedral.

    Masjid Qasim Pasha has been changed to Saint Michael cathedral.

    The Jami Masjid of Qurtuba has been converted to a cathedral.

    Masjid Ibn Adees has been changed to the Salvador Cathedral.

    Masjidul Murabiteen has been converted to the Khan Khausiyyah church.

    Jami Masjid of Seville has been changed to the Church of Marry.

    No one is mourning the diversity and rich Islamic history of mosques-turned-churches in Spain that surveil and monitor Muslim tourists & stop them from praying inside.

    Please share the post to silence the mouths claiming to persecute the issue of Christians and their sacred claims that Turkey does not respect the feelings of Christians in the world. AYA SOFIA
    Or
    🌹🌹🌹MASJID E AYA SOFIA,
    🌹🌹
    Turkey’s conversion of the famous Hagia Sophia from a Museum into a mosque was condemned by CNN, the Pope etc. (Negara islam lain, as usual, diam saja). Yesterday the Turkish Foreign minister showed proof to justify the change to a mosque…

    L.Abu Bakr Turkey, wrote :

    What attracted my attention most during my research in the case of Aya Sofia is the name of the endowment created by Sultan Muhammad II and recorded and corrected Aya Sofia on his name.

    For those who don’t know.. Sultan Muhammad II, known as (Muhammad Al-Fateh), was insightful and intelligent to witness history and enemy before the beloved, he made a move that has never been repeated in history.

    So that after opening Constantinople, he offered pastors to buy Aya Sofia’s building from his own money, not from the state’s money or from the house of Muslim money, and a personal deal that has nothing to do with his job in the state.

    The deal was documented through a purchase and waiver contract, and payment was proven with payment bonds.
    Directly, may Allah be pleased with him, established a stand (A Waqf) and waived to the waqf his property and the name of the endowment was tipped.

    This is what shook Turkey a few weeks ago to manually review 27 thousand documents, coincidentally found an original title (Tabou) that clearly shows private property ownership.

    Thus, landlords applied for absolute free use of the property as their own, and their request was to return the building to a mosque
    As they used it since the day they bought it.

    But what caught my attention is the name of the endowment created by the Fateh, may Allah be pleased with him and the name (Abu Al-Fath Al-Sultan Muhammad)

    In the photo, the purchase contract and the cue that was found recently.

    Mosques in Spain have been turned into churches, bars and nightclubs ! (Against the peace treaty).

    The Babri Mosque in India turned into a temple of idols !

    They want to transform Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem with all its sanctuaries as the capital of the Zionists !

    We have not heard a Western or Eastern voice condemning these crimes !

    But reverting the Aya Sophia to a mosque exposed the hatred of the mentally eclipsed from the East and the West !!

    The Alhambra Palace Mosque in Granada was converted to the Santa Maria cathedral.

    Masjid Qasim Pasha has been changed to Saint Michael cathedral.

    The Jami Masjid of Qurtuba has been converted to a cathedral.

    Masjid Ibn Adees has been changed to the Salvador Cathedral.

    Masjidul Murabiteen has been converted to the Khan Khausiyyah church.

    Jami Masjid of Seville has been changed to the Church of Marry.

    No one is mourning the diversity and rich Islamic history of mosques-turned-churches in Spain that surveil and monitor Muslim tourists & stop them from praying inside.

    Please share the post to silence the mouths claiming to persecute the issue of Christians and their sacred claims that Turkey does not respect the feelings of Christians in the world. AYA SOFIA
    Or
    🌹🌹🌹MASJID E AYA SOFIA,
    🌹🌹
    Turkey’s conversion of the famous Hagia Sophia from a Museum into a mosque was condemned by CNN, the Pope etc. (Negara islam lain, as usual, diam saja). Yesterday the Turkish Foreign minister showed proof to justify the change to a mosque…

    L.Abu Bakr Turkey, wrote :

    What attracted my attention most during my research in the case of Aya Sofia is the name of the endowment created by Sultan Muhammad II and recorded and corrected Aya Sofia on his name.

    For those who don’t know.. Sultan Muhammad II, known as (Muhammad Al-Fateh), was insightful and intelligent to witness history and enemy before the beloved, he made a move that has never been repeated in history.

    So that after opening Constantinople, he offered pastors to buy Aya Sofia’s building from his own money, not from the state’s money or from the house of Muslim money, and a personal deal that has nothing to do with his job in the state.

    The deal was documented through a purchase and waiver contract, and payment was proven with payment bonds.
    Directly, may Allah be pleased with him, established a stand (A Waqf) and waived to the waqf his property and the name of the endowment was tipped.

    This is what shook Turkey a few weeks ago to manually review 27 thousand documents, coincidentally found an original title (Tabou) that clearly shows private property ownership.

    Thus, landlords applied for absolute free use of the property as their own, and their request was to return the building to a mosque
    As they used it since the day they bought it.

    But what caught my attention is the name of the endowment created by the Fateh, may Allah be pleased with him and the name (Abu Al-Fath Al-Sultan Muhammad)

    In the photo, the purchase contract and the cue that was found recently.

    Mosques in Spain have been turned into churches, bars and nightclubs ! (Against the peace treaty).

    The Babri Mosque in India turned into a temple of idols !

    They want to transform Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem with all its sanctuaries as the capital of the Zionists !

    We have not heard a Western or Eastern voice condemning these crimes !

    But reverting the Aya Sophia to a mosque exposed the hatred of the mentally eclipsed from the East and the West !!

    The Alhambra Palace Mosque in Granada was converted to the Santa Maria cathedral.

    Masjid Qasim Pasha has been changed to Saint Michael cathedral.

    The Jami Masjid of Qurtuba has been converted to a cathedral.

    Masjid Ibn Adees has been changed to the Salvador Cathedral.

    Masjidul Murabiteen has been converted to the Khan Khausiyyah church.

    Jami Masjid of Seville has been changed to the Church of Marry.

    No one is mourning the diversity and rich Islamic history of mosques-turned-churches in Spain that surveil and monitor Muslim tourists & stop them from praying inside.

    Please share the post to silence the mouths claiming to persecute the issue of Christians and their sacred claims that Turkey does not respect the feelings of Christians in the AYA SOFIA
    Or
    🌹🌹🌹MASJID E AYA SOFIA,
    🌹🌹
    Turkey’s conversion of the famous Hagia Sophia from a Museum into a mosque was condemned by CNN, the Pope etc. (Negara islam lain, as usual, diam saja). Yesterday the Turkish Foreign minister showed proof to justify the change to a mosque…

    L.Abu Bakr Turkey, wrote :

    What attracted my attention most during my research in the case of Aya Sofia is the name of the endowment created by Sultan Muhammad II and recorded and corrected Aya Sofia on his name.

    For those who don’t know.. Sultan Muhammad II, known as (Muhammad Al-Fateh), was insightful and intelligent to witness history and enemy before the beloved, he made a move that has never been repeated in history.

    So that after opening Constantinople, he offered pastors to buy Aya Sofia’s building from his own money, not from the state’s money or from the house of Muslim money, and a personal deal that has nothing to do with his job in the state.

    The deal was documented through a purchase and waiver contract, and payment was proven with payment bonds.
    Directly, may Allah be pleased with him, established a stand (A Waqf) and waived to the waqf his property and the name of the endowment was tipped.

    This is what shook Turkey a few weeks ago to manually review 27 thousand documents, coincidentally found an original title (Tabou) that clearly shows private property ownership.

    Thus, landlords applied for absolute free use of the property as their own, and their request was to return the building to a mosque
    As they used it since the day they bought it.

    But what caught my attention is the name of the endowment created by the Fateh, may Allah be pleased with him and the name (Abu Al-Fath Al-Sultan Muhammad)

    In the photo, the purchase contract and the cue that was found recently.

    Mosques in Spain have been turned into churches, bars and nightclubs ! (Against the peace treaty).

    The Babri Mosque in India turned into a temple of idols !

    They want to transform Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem with all its sanctuaries as the capital of the Zionists !

    We have not heard a Western or Eastern voice condemning these crimes !

    But reverting the Aya Sophia to a mosque exposed the hatred of the mentally eclipsed from the East and the West !!

    The Alhambra Palace Mosque in Granada was converted to the Santa Maria cathedral.

    Masjid Qasim Pasha has been changed to Saint Michael cathedral.

    The Jami Masjid of Qurtuba has been converted to a cathedral.

    Masjid Ibn Adees has been changed to the Salvador Cathedral.

    Masjidul Murabiteen has been converted to the Khan Khausiyyah church.

    Jami Masjid of Seville has been changed to the Church of Marry.

    No one is mourning the diversity and rich Islamic history of mosques-turned-churches in Spain that surveil and monitor Muslim tourists & stop them from praying inside.

    Please share the post to silence the mouths claiming to persecute the issue of Christians and their sacred claims that Turkey does not respect the feelings of Christians in the World…. AYA SOFIA
    Or
    🌹🌹🌹MASJID E AYA SOFIA,
    🌹🌹
    Turkey’s conversion of the famous Hagia Sophia from a Museum into a mosque was condemned by CNN, the Pope etc. (Negara islam lain, as usual, diam saja). Yesterday the Turkish Foreign minister showed proof to justify the change to a mosque…

    L.Abu Bakr Turkey, wrote :

    What attracted my attention most during my research in the case of Aya Sofia is the name of the endowment created by Sultan Muhammad II and recorded and corrected Aya Sofia on his name.

    For those who don’t know.. Sultan Muhammad II, known as (Muhammad Al-Fateh), was insightful and intelligent to witness history and enemy before the beloved, he made a move that has never been repeated in history.

    So that after opening Constantinople, he offered pastors to buy Aya Sofia’s building from his own money, not from the state’s money or from the house of Muslim money, and a personal deal that has nothing to do with his job in the state.

    The deal was documented through a purchase and waiver contract, and payment was proven with payment bonds.
    Directly, may Allah be pleased with him, established a stand (A Waqf) and waived to the waqf his property and the name of the endowment was tipped.

    This is what shook Turkey a few weeks ago to manually review 27 thousand documents, coincidentally found an original title (Tabou) that clearly shows private property ownership.

    Thus, landlords applied for absolute free use of the property as their own, and their request was to return the building to a mosque
    As they used it since the day they bought it.

    But what caught my attention is the name of the endowment created by the Fateh, may Allah be pleased with him and the name (Abu Al-Fath Al-Sultan Muhammad)

    In the photo, the purchase contract and the cue that was found recently.

    Mosques in Spain have been turned into churches, bars and nightclubs ! (Against the peace treaty).

    The Babri Mosque in India turned into a temple of idols !

    They want to transform Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem with all its sanctuaries as the capital of the Zionists !

    We have not heard a Western or Eastern voice condemning these crimes !

    But reverting the Aya Sophia to a mosque exposed the hatred of the mentally eclipsed from the East and the West !!

    The Alhambra Palace Mosque in Granada was converted to the Santa Maria cathedral.

    Masjid Qasim Pasha has been changed to Saint Michael cathedral.

    The Jami Masjid of Qurtuba has been converted to a cathedral.

    Masjid Ibn Adees has been changed to the Salvador Cathedral.

    Masjidul Murabiteen has been converted to the Khan Khausiyyah church.

    Jami Masjid of Seville has been changed to the Church of Marry.

    No one is mourning the diversity and rich Islamic history of mosques-turned-churches in Spain that surveil and monitor Muslim tourists & stop them from praying inside.

    Please share the post to silence the mouths claiming to persecute the issue of Christians and their sacred claims that Turkey does not respect the feelings of Christians in the world.

  28. AYA SOFIA
    Or
    🌹🌹🌹MASJID E AYA SOFIA,
    🌹🌹
    Turkey’s conversion of the famous Hagia Sophia from a Museum into a mosque was condemned by CNN, the Pope etc. (Negara islam lain, as usual, diam saja). Yesterday the Turkish Foreign minister showed proof to justify the change to a mosque…

    L.Abu Bakr Turkey, wrote :

    What attracted my attention most during my research in the case of Aya Sofia is the name of the endowment created by Sultan Muhammad II and recorded and corrected Aya Sofia on his name.

    For those who don’t know.. Sultan Muhammad II, known as (Muhammad Al-Fateh), was insightful and intelligent to witness history and enemy before the beloved, he made a move that has never been repeated in history.

    So that after opening Constantinople, he offered pastors to buy Aya Sofia’s building from his own money, not from the state’s money or from the house of Muslim money, and a personal deal that has nothing to do with his job in the state.

    The deal was documented through a purchase and waiver contract, and payment was proven with payment bonds.
    Directly, may Allah be pleased with him, established a stand (A Waqf) and waived to the waqf his property and the name of the endowment was tipped.

    This is what shook Turkey a few weeks ago to manually review 27 thousand documents, coincidentally found an original title (Tabou) that clearly shows private property ownership.
    ( THIS MESSAGE IS SENT BY A HIGHLY EDUCATED FRIEND… He also sent the photocopy of that document , which I am unable to paste here.)

    Thus, landlords applied for absolute free use of the property as their own, and their request was to return the building to a mosque
    As they used it since the day they bought it.

    But what caught my attention is the name of the endowment created by the Fateh, may Allah be pleased with him and the name (Abu Al-Fath Al-Sultan Muhammad)

    In the photo, the purchase contract and the cue that was found recently.

    Mosques in Spain have been turned into churches, bars and nightclubs ! (Against the peace treaty).

    The Babri Mosque in India turned into a temple of idols !

    They want to transform Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem with all its sanctuaries as the capital of the Zionists !

    We have not heard a Western or Eastern voice condemning these crimes !

    But reverting the Aya Sophia to a mosque exposed the hatred of the mentally eclipsed from the East and the West !!

    The Alhambra Palace Mosque in Granada was converted to the Santa Maria cathedral.

    Masjid Qasim Pasha has been changed to Saint Michael cathedral.

    The Jami Masjid of Qurtuba has been converted to a cathedral.

    Masjid Ibn Adees has been changed to the Salvador Cathedral.

    Masjidul Murabiteen has been converted to the Khan Khausiyyah church.

    Jami Masjid of Seville has been changed to the Church of Marry.

    No one is mourning the diversity and rich Islamic history of mosques-turned-churches in Spain that surveil and monitor Muslim tourists & stop them from praying inside.

    Please share the post to silence the mouths claiming to persecute the issue of Christians and their sacred claims that Turkey does not respect the feelings of Christians in the world.

  29. It is matter of shame ans sacrilage that the Cathedral built by the Eastern Byzantine Emperor Constantine ( Greek Hagia Sophia Divine Wisdom connotes Jesus the Logas=the Word) . How a second century Cathedral was preserved for 1000 years by Christians at Constantinople, which was lost to the invading Muslims due to the indecisiveness of western Church to help the Orthodox church. The religious icons in Haga Sophia tell us the truth of the history of the Church. The entire Asia Minor was Christian before the rapacious invaders converted them by Sword. When the entire world knows about the President has been hand in glove with Islamic State. Turkey has been a conduit for recruiters to IS to reach Iraq-Syria waging war on humanity.No wonder he has done this attrocity. The Muslim rule in India destroyed millions of temples and demolished .

  30. It is matter of shame and sacrilage that the Cathedral built by the Eastern Byzantine Emperor Constantine ( Greek Hagia Sophia Divine Wisdom connotes Jesus the Logas=the Word) . How a second century Cathedral was preserved for 1000 years by Christians at Constantinople, which was lost to the invading Muslims due to the indecisiveness of western Church to help the Orthodox church. The religious icons in Haga Sophia tell us the the history of the Church which is the body of Christ.. The entire Asia Minor was Christian before the invaders converted them by sword.

  31. This topic needs scholars to explain in detail…..Don’t agree with this arricle as its not based on complete research…..The Jerusalem case was an exception….Muslim ruler purchased the hagia sophia at huge price….Anyway your media is doing great job.

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