Natural resources of Muslim majority countries

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By: Dr. Mohammed Iqtedar Husain Farooqi

Natural resources and their proper uses play an important role in the development of any country. Natural vegetable resources are used to make food, fuel and raw materials for the production of goods and Medicine. Non -Vegetative Natural resources like coal, natural gas and Petroleum oil provide heat, light and power.

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Muslim countries have a wide variety of natural resource like Oil and Gas as well as Agricultural Products. Of course, Oil is one of the most important and expensive natural source. Muslim World owns about 75% of the total global oil reserves of the world. Saudi Arabia with about 18% of global reserve tops in the Muslim World followed by Iran (9%), Iraq (8.5%), Kuwait 6 (%), UAE (5.9% , Libya (2.8%) and Nigeria (2.2%) Note: U.S. reserve of oil is about 2%.

Oil export revenue is major part of GDP of several Muslim countries, highest of $237 Billion being the revenue for Saudi Arabia in 2018, followed by Iraq ($91), UAE($74), Iran($67), Kuwait($61), Nigeria ($42), Kazakhstan ($ 37), Algeria ($30), Oman ($25) Qatar ($22), Libya ($21), Azerbaijan ($16), Malaysia ($10), Indonesia ($5) and Bahrain ($4).

Muslim Countries with high agricultural output, according to world ranking of 2018, are Indonesia (5); Nigeria (6); Pakistan (8); Turkey (10); Iran (13) (Bangladesh (18) and Egypt (20). In spite of satisfactory scenario of agriculture produce, still the Muslim world is faced with an acute shortage of food products. More than half of the Muslim world depends on import of daily requirement of Food products. This may be largely due to poor coordination of the countries within the Islamic World. Unfortunately lack of knowledge in Science and Technology is the major cause that vast arable area could not be developed to meet the Islamic world food need.

As far as water distribution of Water on Earth is considered, it is well known that only about 3% per cent is fresh water in the form of Glaciers (about 2%), Lakes, Rivers, Ground Water etc. and the rest 97% in the form saline water of Oceans and Seas. Amongst the countries of the globe Brazil is ranked 1 in the availability total renewable water resources of 8,233 (km³) followed by Russia (4,500) and United States (3,070). With regards to Muslim countries, Indonesia is at the top of the table with 2020 (Ranked 8) followed by Bangladesh (1200 Ranked 13), Nigeria (950 Ranked 16) and Pakistan (246, Ranked 35), In case of the per capita availability (Cubic Meters) Greenland stands at the Top Rank of 1 with 10,662,190 cubic meters followed by Iceland (519264 Rank 2), Guyana (315701 Rank 3), Surinam (178935 Rank 4) and Bhutan (108475 Rank 5). Amongst Muslim countries highest per capita availability is in Sierra Leone with 22801 Cubic Meters (Ranks 32) followed by Brunei with 20743 (R 34), GUINEA (20263 R 35), Malaysia (19419 R 37) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (10194 R 48).

The following table provides details of Natural Resources and Total Renewable Water (TRWR) availability (with Per Capita) by each Muslim Country along with world ranking. TRWR remains the same for long years whereas Per Capita availability of water decrease rather every year with the increase in population of each country

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IMPORTANT NATURAL RESOURCES (PLANTS/MINERALS/ANIMALS) & TOTAL RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCE –TRWR (KM³/YEAR) – 2011 & PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY – 2014 (CUBIC METERS) OF MUSLIM MAJORITY COUNTRIES WITH WORLD RANKINGS OF EACH ENTRY

Country: Major Natural Resources, TRWR (km³/year) & Per Capita Water (cubic meters) Availability

AFGHANISTAN: Opium (World Ranking 1), Goat (8), Pistachio (8), Apricot (9), Pomegranate (9), Almonds (16), Grape (18), Fig (22), Sheep (28) Linseed Oil (33), Sesame Oil (37), Cotton (42) Cattle (46), Gypsum (63), Potato (66) Natural gas (80) TRWR 24 – (Rank 114); Per Capita 1300- (R117)

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ALBANIA: Fig (World Ranking 11), Okra (21), Grape (36), Oat (42) Garlic (46), Honey (47), Gypsum (49) Petroleum (63) Potato (87) Natural gas (90) Cattle (125), TRWR 43 – (96), TRWR 43 – ) R96 (; Per Capita 9400-(R52)

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ALGERIA: Fig (World Ranking, 3), Phosphate (4), Apricot (4), Watermelon (6), Dates (7), Olive Oil (9) Almond (9), Oat (36) Oil (9), Natural Gas (10), Sheep (12), Garlic (15), Orange (15), Potato (15), Sheep Population (15), Pumpkin (17), Petroleum (18), Gypsum (20), Lentil (21), Pear (23), Grape (23), Apple (29), Iron (33), Honey (33), Tobacco (50), Cattle (84), TRWR 65 – (R82); Per Capita 270 (R162)

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AZERBAIJAN: Quince (World Ranking, 7), Fig (21), Petroleum (23), Apricot (27), Natural gas (33), Garlic (34), Tomato (39), Tea (40), Iron (41), Apple (41), Grape (42), Cotton (43), Gypsum (44) , Sunflower Oil (45), Potato(46), Gold (57), Cattle (76), TRWR 78 – (R76); Per Capita 824 (R142)

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BAHRAIN: Aluminum (World Ranking, 8), Natural gas (36), Petroleum (51), Cattle (179), TRWR 0.12 -) R163 (; Per Capita 3.0 (R178)

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BAGLADESH: Jute (World Ranking 2), Goat (4), Garlic (4), Rice (4), Guava (6), Lentil (6), Potato (7), Sapote (7), Ginger (8), Mango (8), Tea (10), Tobacco (11), Leather (11), Cattle (12), Pumpkin (12), Papaya (15), Fish(16), Banana (18), Linseed Oil (21), Maize (Corn) (25), Pineapple(25), Sesame Oil (30) , Coconut (30), Natural gas (31), Sugar Cane (32), Soybeans (34), Cotton (40), Petroleum (80), TRWR 1,200 -)R13(;Per Capita 660 (R147)

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BOSNIA: Coal (World Ranking, 25), Iron (31), Sunflower Oil (32), Zinc (38), Honey (50), Gypsum (60), Potato (68), Cattle (128), TRWR38 -) R100); Per Capita 10600 (R48)

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BRUNEI: Natural gas (World Ranking, 37), Petroleum (41), Coconut (88), Cattle (196), TRWR 8.5 -) R138 (; Per Capita 20020-(R34)

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BURKINA FASU: Millet (World Ranking, 6), Cottonseed Oil (8), Sorghum (10), Cotton (10), Cashew (11), Okra (17), Gold (21), Almonds (27), Cattle (34) Sheep (36), TRWR 12.5 -) R131 (; Per Capita 650(R146)

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CHAD: Gum Arabic (World Ranking, 2), Came (5), Millet (9), Yam (9), Groundnut Oil (10), Sorghum (15), Cotton (30), Cattle (37), Petroleum (40), Sheep (50), TRWR 42 – ) R97 (; Per Capita 999 (R130)

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COMOROS: Bananas, Cloves, Coconuts, Corn, Rice Sweet Potatoes, (Ranking not recorded), Vanilla (World Ranking, 10), TRWR 1.2 -) R155 (; Per Capita 1470(R115)

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DJIBOUTI: Cattle (World Ranking, 138) Gold, Gypsum, Marble, Petroleum (Ranking not known), TRWR 0.3 -) R161 (; Per Capita 320(R161)

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EGYPT: Dates (World Ranking, 1), Fig (2), Guar Gum (3), Egg (4), Aromatic Oils (4), Onion (4), Garlic (5), Strawberry (5), Tomato (6), Pomegranate (6), Jute (8), Orange (8), Phosphate (8), Sugar Beet (8), Okra (9), Watermelon (9), Peach (10), Pumpkin (11), Apricot (12), Grape (13), Potato(14), Linseed Oil (15), Natural gas (16), Soybean Oil (16), Maize (Corn) (17), Sorghum (18), Cotton(18), Banana (19), Apple (21), Crude steel (21), Aluminum (24), Gypsum (25), Iron (26), Petroleum (29), Honey (32), Gold (33), Sunflower Oil (36), Fish (43), Soya bean (43), Cattle (52), TRWR 57- )R87(;Per Capita 10.0 (R176)

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ERITREA: Sorghum (32), Sheep (54), Gypsum (76), Cattle (World Ranking, 80), TRWR 6.3 -) R142 (; Per Capita 820(R138)

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GAMBIA: Grape (World Ranking, 9), Iron (10), Copper (13), Potato (13), Gold (21), Aluminum (21), Zinc (34), Cattle (36), Fish (37), Palm Oil (42), Sorghum (50), Per Capita 1350(R116)

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GUINEA: Bauxite (World Ranking 5), Palm Oil (22), Coffee (30), Cattle (51), Per Capita 18730-(R35)

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GUINEA-BISSAU: Bauxite (World Ranking, 3), Groundnut Oil (9), Diamond (16), Gold (30), Pineapple (30), Banana (34), Palm Oil (35), Coconut (39), Cotton (41), Papaya (46), Sorghum (46), Cattle (51), TRWR 31 – ) R106 (; Per Capita 8750(R51)

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INDONESIA: Vanilla (World Ranking, 1), Timber (1), Cinnamon (1), Cloves (1), Coconut (1), Nickel (1), Nutmeg (1), Palm Oil (1), Fish (2), Black Pepper (2), Tin (2), Vanilla (2), Natural Rubber (2), Rubber (2), Coconut Oil (2), Cardamom (3), Cassava (3), Chicken (3), Cocoa (3), Rice (3), Bauxite (4), Chili (4), Coffee (4), Ginger (4), Mango (4), Papaya (4), Pearl (4), Sweet Potato (4), Coal (5), Maize (5), Tobacco (5), Banana (6), Egg (6), Pineapple (6), Tea (7), Gold (7), Arrowroot (8), Guava (8), Sugarcane (8), Most Fruits (8), Aromatic Oils (9), Natural gas (9), Orange (9), Pineapple (9), Maize (Corn) (10), Cashew (10), Copper (11) , Corn (12), Soya bean (12), Soybean Oil (13), Aluminum (14), Pumpkin (14), Sapote (16), Cattle (18), Sheep (21), Tomato (21), Petroleum (22), Iron (24), Crude steel (27), Garlic (37), Potato (40), Gypsum (72), TRWR 2,020 – R)8(;Per Capita 630(R58)

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IRAN: Pistachio (World Ranking, 1), Pomegranate (1), Saffron (1), Dates (2), Rose Oil (2), Walnut (3), Watermelon (3), Almond (3), Egg (3), Gypsum (3), Natural gas (3), Sheep (4), Honey(4), Apricot (5), Chicken (5), Petroleum (5) , Fig (5), Onion (5), Quince (5), Pumpkin (6), Plum (6), Tomato (7), Wool (7), Citrus Fruits (7), Peach (7), Kiwi (8), Tea (8) , Apple (9), Grape (9), Boron (10) , Crude steel (10), Iron (10), Lentil (11), Orange (13), Potato (13) , Sugar Beet (13), Copper (13), Sesame Oil(14),Zinc (14), Barley (15), Lead (16), Safflower (17), Garlic (18), Aluminum (21), Pear (21), Sugar Cane (22), Soybean (24) , Cotton (27), Linseed Oil (30), Sunflower Oil (31), Tobacco (35), Cattle (36) Fish (37), Sorghum (54), TRWR 137- )R58(;Per Capita 1590 (R113)

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IRAQ: Dates (World Ranking, 4), Petroleum (4), Okra (5), Egg (7), Phosphate (15), Fig (20), Tomato (26), Pumpkin (27), Sesame Oil(32), Grape (34), Apricot (37), Sheep (42), Sorghum (43), Cotton (45), Orange (45), Natural gas (65), Cattle (71) Potato (92), TRWR 90 – )R73(; 940 (R134)

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JORDAN: Phosphate (World Ranking, 5), Potash (7), Olive Oil (10), Pistachio (14), (24), Gypsum (26), Sesame Oil (26), Okra (27), Tomato (27), Almonds Apricot (36), Pumpkin (44), Sheep (53), Natural gas (76), Potato (83), Petroleum (97), Cattle (156), TRWR 0.94 – )R156); 70(R174)

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KAZAKHSTAN: Uranium (World Ranking, 1), Safflower (1), Safflower Oil (5), Bismuth (5), Bauxite (7), Zinc (7), Manganese (7) , Boron (8), Horse (8), Silver (9), Coal (10), Copper (10), Iron (12), Sunflower Oil (13), Barley (14), Lead (14), Petroleum (16), Gold (17), Phosphate (21), Potato (21), Soybean (21), Sheep (22), Oat (22), Cotton (22), Lentil (22), Aluminum (25), Gypsum (28), Garlic (29), Natural gas (30), Tomato (30), Linseed Oil (31), Apricot (34), Crude steel (34), Cattle (42), Apple (45), TRWR 66 – )R81(;Per Capita 3570-(R76)

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KOSOVO: Coal (World Ranking, 23) Zinc (37),

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KUWAT: Petroleum (World Ranking, 9), Okra (26), Natural gas (35), Cattle (163), TRWR 0.02 –) R170(less than 1.0 (R179)

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KYRGYSTAN: Safflower (World Ranking, 11), Pistachio (13), Almonds (25) Garlic (27), Apricot (30), Gold (32), Potato (36), Apple (46), Cotton (39), Natural gas (89), Petroleum (89), Cattle (97), TRWR 23 – ) R115 (; Per Capita 7890 (R57)

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LEBANON: Almonds (World Ranking, 14), Fig (25), Sesame Oil (28), Apricot (31), Okra (34), Banana (40), Tobacco (43), Apple (49), Gypsum (54), Potato (72), Cattle (154), TRWR 4.5 -) R145 ( ; Per Capita 700 (R145)

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LIBYA: Almonds (World Ranking, 13), Fig (17), Petroleum (20), Apricot (28), Gypsum (45), Natural gas (45), Sheep (46), Potato (79), Cattle (141), TRWR 0.7 -) R158 (; Per Capita 106 (R168)

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MALAYSIA: Palm Oil (World Ranking 2), Natural Rubber (3), Manganese (7), Coconut Oil (8), Tin (9), Coconut (10), Okra (11), Natural gas (12), Aluminum (12), Ginger (14), Sesame Oil (17), Fish (18), Iron (18), Pineapple (20), Papaya (21), Banana (21), Tea (23), Petroleum (25), Crude steel (39), Pumpkin (50), Gold (54), Cattle (111), TRWR 580.0(billion cubic meters per year)in 2017; Per Capita 18650

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MALDIVES: Petroleum Gas(Ranks, NA), Iron, Fish, Coconut, Millet, corn, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, pineapples, sugarcane, almonds, Breadfruit, mangoes, papayas, bananas, watermelon, taro, and chili peppers, TRWR-NA; Per Capita,60

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MALI: Millet (World Ranking, 5), Camel (9), Ginger (10), Gum Arabic (10), Cotton (13), Sorghum (14), Gold (18), Papaya (20), Sheep (27), Maize (Corn) (30), Cattle (32), Tea (47), Potato (89), TRWR 100 – ) R69 (; ُPer Capita 3240

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MAURITANIA: Camel (World Ranking, 6), Gold (11), Iron (16), Iron (Ranking, 16), Sheep (31), Sorghum (41), Gypsum (59), Petroleum (78), Cattle (85), TRWR 11 – ) R135 (; Per Capita 93

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MOROCCO: Phosphate (World Ranking,1), Saffron (3), Rose Oil (3), Almond (4), Fig (4), Olive Oil (7), Aromatic Oils (8), Apricot (10), Lead (12), Orange (14), Lentil (14), Barley (15), Safflower Oil (15), Sheep (16), Zinc (16), Pistachio(18), Tomato (18), Pumpkin (22), Apple (25), Grape (28), Linseed Oil (28), Potato (33), Copper (35), Iron (38), Banana (40), Oat (40), Honey (41), Sunflower Oil (41), Garlic (47), Cattle (67), Natural gas (85), Petroleum (96), TRWR 31 – ) R107(;Per Capita 815

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NIGER: Millet (World Ranking, 3), Came (4), Uranium (4), Sorghum (12), Sheep (27), Cattle (28), Pumpkin (42), Gypsum (74), Petroleum (76), Potato (96), TRWR 34 – ) R104 (; Per Capita 162

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NIGERIA: Cassava (World Ranking, 1), Taro (1), Yam (1), Ginger (2), Millet (2), Okra (2), Sorghum (2), Sweet Potato (2), Groundnut Oil (3), Papaya (3), Cocoa (4), Gum Arabic (3), Goat (5), Sheep (5), Palm Oil (5), Pineapple (8), Rubber (8), Mango (9), Timber (10), Petroleum (13), Tin (14), Cattle (14), Soybean (15), Tomato (15), Corn (15), Maize (Corn) (13), Coconut (18), Cotton (19), Fish (33), Natural gas (28), Sesame Oil (35), Gypsum (37), Potato (39), TRWR 950 – )R16(; Per Capita 1160

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OMAN: Dates (World Ranking 10) Gypsum (14), Petroleum (19), Aluminum (20), Okra (25), Natural gas (26), Papaya (50), Cattle (134), TRWR 1.4 -) R154 (; Per Capita 300

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PAKISTAN: Turmeric (World Ranking, 2), Cottonseed Oil (3), Goat (3), Cotton (4), Onion (4), Dates (5), Fresh Dates (5), Mango (5), Sugar Cane (5), Tobacco (6), Apricot (6), Chicken (6), Okra (6), Cattle (7), Came (8), Wheat (8), Beef (9), Sheep (9), Rice (10), Leather (12), Uranium (15), Pistachio (16), Pumpkin (18), Rapeseed Oil (18), Almonds (18), Maize (Corn) (18), Safflower (19), Lentil (19), Potato (19), Garlic (21), Apple (23), Gypsum (23), Natural gas (23), Sunflower Oil (23), Linseed Oil (27), Sorghum (31), Ginger (32), Crude steel (32), Copper (33), Fish (35), Honey (36), Papaya (39), Iron (40), Banana (42), Orange (44), Petroleum (44), Coconut (58), TRWR 246 – )R35(:Per Capita 265

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PALESTINE: Petroleum (Ranking, 89), Cattle (World Ranking, 165), Natural Gas (not yet exploited) Okra,

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QATAR: Natural gas (World Ranking, 4), Aluminum (14), Petroleum (17), Crude steel (40), Cattle (177), TRWR 0.06 -) R165 (; Per Capita 21

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SAUDI ARABIA: Export (World Ranking, 1), Dates (3), Petroleum (Production (3), Phosphate (7), Natural gas (8), Aluminum (9), Goat (10), Sesame Oil (11), Okra (13), Zinc (14), Gypsum (16), Sorghum (Rank 26), Crude steel (28), Sheep (31), Gold (38), Pumpkin (39), Tomato (46), Potato (65), Cattle (123), TRWR 2.4 – )R151(;Per Capita 73

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SENEGAL: Gum Arabic (World Ranking, 7), Millet (10), Phosphate (12), Okra (14), Sorghum (28), Palm Oil (31), Gold (44), Honey (44), Fish (39), Sheep (45), Cotton (47), Cattle (63), Coconut (70), Natural gas (88), TRWR 39 – ) R98 (; Per Capita 670

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SIERRA LEONE: Diamond (World Ranking, 10), Iron (17), Palm Oil (20), Sorghum (44), Coconut (68), Cattle (120), TRWR 160 – ) R50 (; Per Capita 21,370

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SOMALIA: Camel (World Ranking, 1), Iron (17), Sheep (30), Sorghum (34), Cattle (53), Uranium (Large Reserves); Per Capita 410

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SUDAN : Gum Arabic (1), Camel (World Ranking, 2), Okra (3), Sheep (5), Groundnut Oil (5), Cattle (7), Goat (6), Sorghum (6), Millet (7), Sesame Oil (7), Dates (8), Wool (10), Cotton (21), Sugar Cane (29), Garlic (23), Sunflower Oil (33), Tomato (33), Gold (35), Petroleum (35), Gypsum (47), Orange (39) , Potato (69), TRWR 160 – )R50( ; Per Capita 98

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SYRIA: Phosphate (World Ranking, 3), Almond (5), Olive Oil (5), Pistachio (5) , Fig (6), Lentil (12), Sheep (13), Apricot (16), Orange (18), Okra(19), Sesame Oil (21), Cotton (28), Tomato (31), Apple (33), Pumpkin (34), Grape (37), Tobacco (39), Potato (55), Gypsum (58), Petroleum (59), TRWR 15 – )R125(;Per Capita 410

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TAJIKISTAN: Safflower (World Ranking, 16), Cotton (17), Almonds (23), Apricot (23), Grape (40), Apple (42), Honey (42), Potato (47), Tomato (49), Gold (50), Gypsum (70), Cattle (81), Natural gas (93), Petroleum (95), TRWR 22 – ) R116 (; Per Capita 7,150

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TUNISIA: Olive Oil (World Ranking, 4), Almonds (8), Pistachio (9), Fig (10), Phosphate (10), Tomato (17), Apricot (25), Garlic (32), Linseed Oil (32), Gypsum (33), Pumpkin (36), Sheep (38), Iron (39), Grape (43), Orange (43) ,Honey (45), Apple (50), Petroleum (54), Natural gas (57), Potato (64), Cattle (118), TRWR 5 – )R144(;Per Capita 370

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TURKEY: Hazelnut (World Ranking, 1), Apricot (1), Boron (1), Boron (1), Cherry (1), Cumin (1), Watermelon (2), Strawberry (3), Fig (1), Quince (1) Quince (1), Rose Oil (1), Honey (2) , Chestnut (3), Chili (3), Lentil (3), Pistachio (3), Maize Oil (3), Gypsum (4), Linseed Oil (4), Sunflower Oil (4), Apple (4), Onion (5), Plum (5), Tomato (5), Egg (5), Sugar Beet (5), Almond (6), Vanilla (6), Walnut (6), Wool (6), Tea (6), Grape (6), Olive Oil (6), Potato (6), Safflower (6), Peach (6), Orange (7), Barley (8), Sesame Oil (8), Cotton (8), Crude steel (8), Sheep (8), Silk (8), Pomegranate (8), Kiwi (9), Cottonseed Oil (9), Beef (10), Citrus Fruits (10), Wheat (10), Most Fruits (10), Coal (11), Pears (11), Okra (12), Pumpkin (13), Tobacco, (16), Zinc (17), Maize (Corn) (Rank 19), Iron (20) Copper, (21), Cattle (22), Oat (24), Soybean (28), Gold ( 26), Garlic (31), Fish (Rank 36), Petroleum (53), Natural gas (68), TRWR 211 – )R41(; ُPer Capita 2800

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TURKMINISTANL: Cottonseed Oil (World Ranking, 10), Natural gas (10), Cotton (9), Apricot (19), Sheep (18), Almonds (28), Grape (30), Petroleum (36), Tomato (44), Cattle (78), Potato (80), TRWR 105 – ) R66 (; Per Capita 240

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UAE: Aluminum (World Ranking 5), Dates (6), Petroleum (8), Natural gas (15), Rapeseed Oil (17), Okra (30), Crude steel (38), Gypsum (56), Cattle (150), TRWR 0.15 -) R162 (; Per Capita 16 (177)

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UZBEKISTAN : Apricot (World Ranking, 2), Carrot (2), Quince (3), Silk (3), Jute (4), Safflower Oil (4), Watermelon (5), Apple (5), Cotton (6), Cottonseed Oil (6), Uranium (7), Gold (9), Garlic (11), Tomato (13), Grape (14), Natural gas (14), Pistachio (15), Almonds (17), Copper (20), Potato (23), Sheep (24), Honey (27), Cattle (30), Pear (31), Petroleum (50), Gypsum (65), TRWR 49 – )R94(;Per Capita 500

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YEMEN; Camel (World Ranking, 10), Okra (16), Lentil (17), Sesame Oil (18), Fig (24), Sorghum (24), Papaya (27), Tobacco (32), Sheep (34), Orange (40),Grape (41), Natural gas (41), Banana (46), Gypsum (57), Petroleum (64), Potato (82), Cattle (87), TRWR 2.1 – )R152 (;Per Capita 75

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SOURCES: International Agencies like FAO, World Fact book, Wikipedia etc. Rankings of some Commodities change slightly almost every year depending on change of climate or world demand)

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About the Author : Dr. M.I.H. Farooqi : Scientist/Deputy Director (Retired), National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (Govt. of India), Member of UNESCO Panel on Quranic Botanic Gardens, Member State Biodiversity Board & Author of PLANTS OF THE QURAN, MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE TRADITIONS OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD, ANIMALS MENTIONED IN THE QURAN & DICTIONARY OF FLORA & FAUNA OF QURAN AND SUNNAH Email: mihfarooqi@gmail.com; Mobile: +919839901066

 

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