Putin and Cameron discussed the conflict in the Middle East country by phone.
“The sides exchanged opinions on the international agenda, focusing on the situation in Syria,” the Kremlin said in a statement.
“It was noted that with certain differences in approaches, both Russia and Britain believe a political settlement through talks is the best solution,” it said.
About 70,000 people have died in Syria since the start of the uprising against Syrian President Bashar Assad in March 2011, according to UN figures.
Russia, along with China, has faced widespread condemnation over its refusal to approve UN sanctions against Assad’s regime.
Moscow has repeatedly stated it has no interest in seeing Assad remain in power, but is rather concerned that unilateral sanctions would create a power vacuum that would lead to more violence.