By Maqbool Ahmad Siraj
The Muslim Ummah is in a tragic crisis. Perhaps there is no precedent for such a crisis in history. Its problems seem insurmountable. The nation as a nation has never suffered so much humiliation, humiliation and insult as it is facing today. Today, the number of Muslims in the world exceeds one and a half billion. Fifty-seven (57) countries are where they can decide their own destiny. In addition, about one-third of the nation’s population lives in the democracies of India, the United States, Russia and Europe. But the Muslim nation as a whole has never been so weightless and disrespectful. In the last half-century, about half a dozen countries – Lebanon, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen – have been completely destroyed. This catastrophe was sometimes the result of wars, sometimes of civil war, and sometimes of inconsistent alignment against the world’s superpowers. Instead of rebuilding the nation, the oil wealth of the Arabs is being spent on the purchase of rusty weapons from the West, which cannot defend itself against a curved state like Israel. Eighty percent of the world’s homeless people and refugees are Muslims. It would be futile to mention how helpless this great nation is in India.
Some of the world’s development standards are internationally recognized. Muslim countries are at the bottom of all these standards. Poverty is common in these countries. With the exception of Turkey, almost all Muslim countries are developing. However, despite the fact that the oil-rich Gulf countries are developing, they are still rich. It is because of their relentless exploitation of natural resources, not because of the earnings of their hands and brains. Until about ten years ago today, the total value of the gross national product (GDP) of Muslim countries alone was half of the GDP of France. The flow of all the ideas that organize and shape science and technology and human society in the world has been towards Muslim countries from the West and the Far East. The Muslim world is dependent on these countries for all new tools and techniques. The share of Muslim countries in the production of knowledge in the world has been zero. Many Muslim countries such as Chad, Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan are called Failed States. Many other Muslim states are among the Failing States. Non-State Militant Forces are fighting in many states, such as Pakistan, Somalia, Lebanon, the Kurdish regions, Yemen and Syria. In no Muslim country except Turkey and Malaysia can the bureaucracy be held accountable. Corruption is high in most countries, rulers are dictatorial and the relationship between the people and the administration is very weak. Universities from the UK are ranked by Herbers TLS. Most of these include only universities in Muslim countries (usually from Turkey).
In the last 500 years, Muslims and Muslim nations have not done any invention or creative work. Finding a Muslim-owned multinational company or branded product anywhere in the world would be pointless. Except for Al Jazeera, there is no media house or TV channel in the Muslim world that is considered credible. Only two percent of the world’s books are published by Herbers, and these books are related to religion, history and literature, not economics, science and technology, or sciences such as science and physiology. There are about 800 universities in the entire Muslim world, while 8,000 universities in the United States alone produce 60,000 Ph.Ds each year. In this situation, the fertile minds of Muslim countries (scientists, thinkers, writers) seem to move from their countries to the West and the products and ideas of the West are imported to Muslim countries.
Why and how did Muslims reach this place? Did you think The only reason for this is that creativity, innovation and new thinking and thinking are discouraged among Muslims. Generally, most Muslim organizations insist on keeping the nation in a status quo. The general premise is that Muslims do not need to borrow anything from other nations. Our ideals and the sources of divine guidance between us are sufficient for us. There is no denying that we have heard so many words and sermons in the last few months that the two-year British rule (other Muslim countries are also paying tribute to France, Italy, Denmark, the Netherlands and other colonial powers) and then the world’s superpowers. The wars of the past continued to defeat us. But the most important reason is the lack of introspection. By the end of World War II, Japan and Germany had been bombarded by Allied bombings. But in 70 years, they have not only become self-sufficient, but also made their name in the world’s ten largest economies. Today, Japan is the world’s third largest economy and has not allowed its cultural identity to be sacrificed. It has maintained its number one position in electronics, automotive, robotics and computer technology. Today, Germany is the leader of all kinds of heavy technology. Germany and France are the two main pillars of the EU economy. Germany not only sheltered one million Syrian refugees in the country, but also decided to grant them citizenship, despite a campaign of hatred against foreigners at home. In addition, 3 million Turkish workers and professionals have already been employed in Germany for years. In addition, Italy and Turkey rebuilt themselves from the ravages of World War II. Isn’t Turkey an example for other Muslim countries where 98% of the population is Muslim but the regime is secular democracy, which is a NATO member but has been deprived of EU membership. So we need to ask ourselves why Muslim countries are unable to follow this model. Haven’t all these countries empowered themselves with all modern ideologies like democracy, secularism, religious freedom and women’s rights?
We should not hesitate to say today that all radical movements and organizations have joined hands with the heavens and the earth in glorifying the past. Presenting the greatness in a romantic way seeks to revive that era. Some organizations make Ram Rajya their ideal. Others set the goal of reviving the Khilafah. Others, like Solomon’s kingdom, are struggling to return to the past. These are dreams that will never be embarrassingly interpreted. Yes, they can be a necessity in front of the eyes of the nations which will obscure the ground realities of the present day.
The strength of individuals and nations is a mixture of two elements: first knowledge and second values. Muslims are deprived of both. Muslims are fond of only a few selected sciences. They are reluctant to accept donations from other nations. However, they do not hesitate to adopt the products and techniques created by these sciences. They do not shy away from getting all the material benefits related to these sciences. They need all the tools, materials and products that bring them the comforts of life, but they have nothing to do with all the experience, research, exploration and dedication that has been expended in acquiring this knowledge. It is important to keep in mind that radical conservatives use modern means to achieve their goals, while Orthodox flies on the old style in terms of both their aims and objectives and the means.
The foundations of knowledge are rooted in research. Unless new questions are raised and historical assumptions are challenged, new discoveries do not emerge. The Muslim world and the scholars stopped raising new questions and stopped challenging the old assumptions. Opposition and resistance to new inventions blocked the path of progress. Gutenberg developed the printing press in Germany in 1454. It revolutionized the spread of knowledge in Europe. But its arrival in the Islamic world had to wait 400 years. In 1800, the literacy rate in Europe was 31%, while in the Ottoman Empire of Turkey, the literacy rate was only 1%. When the printing press entered Turkey, the printing of the Qur’an on it was banned. The Observatory in Istanbul was destroyed during the plague at the beginning of the last century by people blinded by superstitions who blamed it on the plague. Inventions in Europe – Camera, Photography, Cinematography, Musical Instruments, Human Organ Donation, Blood Transfusion, Birth Control, Birth Control, Post Mortem (Criminal Investigation), Banking, Insurance, Microphone Use, Feminism Every invention, discovery and ideology, such as the prohibition of, had to go through various periods of opposition, resistance, condemnation, boycott, and gradually their limited use, relaxation of boycott and finally acceptance. It plunged Muslims into centuries of degradation and made them dependent on the West for new luxuries. The situation was that all beneficial products and techniques would be imported, but opposition and resistance to the discovery, research and exploration that gave rise to them would remain.
The role of the Muslim Ummah in the matter of social values is even more shameful even though Islam in its earliest days laid the foundations of the principles of politics and the state and the Holy Prophet and the Righteous Caliphate adhered to them. Today most Muslim states are subordinate to kings, dictators, sheikhs and amirs and military rulers. Where the administration of the state is governed by royal decrees or military laws. The public consultation system is purely formal. Nasser / Sadat / Mubarak, Jafar Namiri / Omar al-Bashir, Ali Abdullah Saleh, Gaddafi, Saddam, Suharto, Nazarbayev have been in power for decades. Even a bloody revolution or military coup did not uproot them. With the exception of Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia and Malaysia, all other Muslim countries follow the whims of different superpowers and their sovereignty in internal affairs is also in doubt. Usually their rulers are afraid of the people and unaware of the wishes and intentions of the people. The media can only say what the rulers want.
Corruption is rampant. Westerners are more familiar with the details of the lavish expenditures of sheikhs and kings. The rulers of the West make deals with them to buy and sell large arms in exchange for the secrets of their assets and private lives, and the Muslim masses are unaware of this. In Transparency International’s annual Corruption Perceptions Index, Muslim countries are at the top and at the bottom in terms of transparency. Words like human rights, women’s rights, freedom of expression, pluralistic society cannot be heard by Muslim rulers. Even in the above-mentioned democracies, the institutions that strengthen the democratic structure, such as the judiciary, the office of the Auditor General, the bureaucracy, the Election Commission, are not autonomous. Many Muslim countries are not even familiar with an organization like the Public Service Commission for the selection of bureaucrats. There is no system of public citizenship training. The Gulf states have not even bothered to draft a constitution for the country. Religious minorities in Muslim countries live in fear. Reports of violence against them are rare, but legal protections are rare. In Pakistan, they can be dragged to the courts on false charges of blasphemy. Muslims can build mosques in Europe, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. Can join the army with beard and hijab. Request a longer lunch break for Friday. Halal may insist on slaughter and may sue for religious discrimination, but non-Muslim minorities in Muslim countries are deprived of such facilities. But when the Hagia Sophia Museum in Turkey is converted into a mosque, there is a wave of rejoicing among Muslims and the Turkish government’s move is justified. Others defend the argument that the mosques that were converted into churches and theaters in the Middle Ages in Greece, Spain and Portugal remain untouched. In almost all Muslim countries, trade is monopolized by a few individuals or families. Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iran, Indonesia and all Central Asian countries topped the Oligarchy list. Of course, this trend is even more pronounced in all the superpower countries of the world. Among them, wealth in the United States, China and Russia is in the hands of only a few.
Given this general state of affairs in the Islamic world and society, it would be a misunderstanding to assume that the world and non-Muslims would consider Islam and Muslims as role models. Joey thinks they are happy. The reality is quite the opposite. Today, Muslims need to learn from other societies and nations. We need to know what are the problems and expectations of the people? How to stimulate and use their creativity? How to build an economy based on public welfare? But how to make the government people friendly in Muslim countries and societies? But there is more emphasis in Muslim countries and societies that the West has a lot to learn from Muslims. Muslims seem oblivious to their collective weaknesses and the shortcomings and injustices of their society and look proud of their individual religious rites and customs. No new political thinking has emerged in the Muslim Ummah after the glorious era of the Righteous Caliphate. In the realm of economics and economics, we are unable to go beyond the interest-free system. We have not been able to make any contribution on productivity, taxation, international trade, emissions due to industrial expansion, consumerism and so on.
Muslims are represented globally by da’wah organizations, which have no literature other than introductory literature on Islam, painting one’s personal life as religious, and defending against certain assumptions. Muslims generally use the ongoing religious customs and restrictions in individual lives to measure the Islamic structure of society. For example, Islamic style of dressing (sherwani, Arabic abaya, hijab), Islamic acts of worship (prayer, fasting, observance of Hajj and Zakat), Islamic style of conversation (for example, the use of insha’Allah, Alhamdulillah, Subhan Allah between sentences), halal Edible (meat and slaughter of halal animals), separation of males in gatherings, etc. But beyond them, the Islamic rules which have been constantly emphasized in the Qur’an and Hadith, such as justice, truthfulness, honesty, transparency, the element of their protection in the use of natural resources, etc., are neglected by the Islamic society. No scale of their application has been developed in the collective life, while they are the basis for the healthy upliftment of societies and nations.
In this regard, the research paper by two researchers from George Washington University, Shehrzad S. Rehman and Hussain Askari, is a guide for us in which they have examined which countries in the world adhere to which principles of Islam. The title of his study was “How Islamic Islamic Countries Are”, published in Global Economic Journal, Volume 10 (Vol.10) in 2017. The study surveyed 203 countries and looked at where justice, equality, public representation, economic and social well-being and prosperity stand. Among the countries included in the list, New Zealand and Luxembourg were ranked first and second in adhering to the principles of Islam. Interestingly, the top 37 places on the list go to countries where Muslims are either in the minority or not at all. According to this study, nowhere in the social, political, economic, financial, legal and administrative affairs of Muslim countries are these basic principles of Islam reflected. He visited Ames, Iowa, USA on Islamic principles. However, there was no provision of halal food in the restaurants and the women were not bound by the principles of Islamic hijab.
Some da’wah organizations also fall prey to misleading propaganda such as “Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world”. They do not understand the implications behind it, nor are they aware of the motives of such propaganda agencies. It is just that the growth rate of Muslims is higher than other nations due to which the proportion of population growth is higher. On the other hand, due to wars, civil wars and common prostitution in Muslim countries, large numbers of people from Africa and the Middle East are entering Europe as refugees and their migration to European cities is becoming more visible. Emergency boats from Libya and Algeria have sunk in the Mediterranean, causing media headlines. All this does not represent a positive trend, but a sharp commentary on the prostitutes of Muslim countries. On the other hand, these lame, homeless people become a talking picture of our misery in Europe.
An increase in numbers is not a welcome trend. Today’s world measures nations by their abilities, creativity, innovation and productivity. In this regard, small countries such as Israel, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Denmark, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea are ahead of many more populous countries.
Human resource capital is the real wealth of nations, not a large number of illiterate, unskilled and untrained people. The rulers of Muslim countries, due to their wrong policies, prohibition of research and restrictions on freedom of expression, dig up their talented people who migrate to the West and become the source of their material development. Students and scientists from oil-rich nations are reluctant to return to their homeland. South Asian professionals are inclined to go to the Gulf states to escape their poverty and are anxious to find some economic prosperity for themselves and their new generation in the West. There are also some who are brought back to the Gulf countries by the lure of wealth after acquiring Western citizenship. The migration map of Muslims is an indication that the new generation, educated and outsiders, either consider the conditions of their motherland irreversible or prefer private economic development to national reform. This tendency represents despair, fear, lust and greed of the world and as a nation demands reflection.
Dr. Jeffrey Long, an American professor who is a new Muslim, has written several books. They are influenced by the many virtues of Islam but do not fail to point out the shortcomings of the Muslims. In his third book, Losing My Religion, A Call for Help, he writes, “American Muslims are very happy with the conversion of a few, but they are oblivious to the fact that Muslims who have emigrated to the United States The second or third generation is hardly a Muslim. Jeffrey Long was a professor of mathematics at the University of Wisconsin at the time of writing this book. According to him, there were about 300 Muslim families in the city, but hardly 50 people attended Friday prayers. He tried to find out the reason and found that the grip of religion was loosened till the second generation and it remained only nominal till the third generation. Commenting on the situation, he writes: In my university many students whose names are Ahmed, Zaid, Bakr come for admission, when I try to find out if they are Muslims, their answer is usually It would be that “their parents or their grandparents used to be Muslims.”
In short, the growing number of Muslims is nothing to be proud of. In the spirit of faith, every soul should be welcomed in Islam, but it is not appropriate to be proud of the number per soul. Instead, efforts should be made to make people who are ethnically Muslim Hwan talented, virtuous, outgoing and moral. The economic welfare of Muslim societies and nations, political organization, social reform and everyone should be bound by the national constitution and constitution. The current situation is that talented and professional Muslims, disturbed by the lawlessness of their motherland, are longing and longing for emigration to the West. The increase in the number of Muslims is a welcome trap that deviates Muslims from the basic purpose of social reform and organization of society and leads them to preach and preach. There is a need for constitutionalization in Muslim countries, adherence to the rule of law, elimination of corruption, increase productivity for economic well-being, encouragement of creativity and innovation, and Encourage new thinking and thinking.
It is common in Muslim societies to discourage the supremacy of style and innovation. In English, this approach can be summed up in the following sentences: “Old is pious, New is Profane”. It is common in those circles of every religion which considers the old style as religiously authentic and attributes it to piety and considers the new way as corruption. Such people are called conservatives. Instead, every method must be weighed on the scales of reason and all customs and traditions must be seen in their context. Turning away from innovation turns nations into ancient ruins. When adopting new methods, be careful not to go against the moral and human boundaries. It should always be borne in mind that what we consider to be a religious tradition must have been a new initiative for the time and place when it was founded. The Holy Prophet dug a trench in the trench warfare on the advice of Hazrat Salman Farsi and saved the people of Madinah from a war because the Holy Prophet knew that the Islamic forces would not be able to compete with the military strength and capability of the Quraysh. Similarly, Hazrat Omar postponed the punishment of cutting off the hand for stealing during the time of famine. He took another step against the practice of slavery by deciding to give equal rights to the children of captives.
Changes in time and place have also created new requirements. In the time of the Holy Prophet, the rights and status of the dhimmis were determined. This was the attitude of Islam towards freedom of religion. But in today’s situation, it should be noted that if Muslims themselves are in a position of dhimmi, that is, they are a religious minority. So what edits need to be made? It was not absolutely necessary in the early days of Islam. Similarly, the debates of jurisprudence related to Dar-ul-Islam, Dar-ul-Kufr, Dar-ul-Harb and Dar-ul-Aman do not apply today because this is the age of nation-states. Today religion and state affairs are kept separate and there are no restrictions on religious affairs in private life. Today’s rulers are called President, Prime Minister and Chancellor and the government is bound by the national constitution of any party. Today, everyone is involved in civic and state affairs. In ancient times the loyalty of the inhabitants was towards the rulers and the inhabitants were not subjects. Today in any Muslim country no jizya is imposed on non-Muslim citizens whereas according to the Qur’an it should be imposed. Islam does not set a minimum age for marriage between a man and a woman, but most states do today. Today, legislatures constantly amend laws and formulate new policies. The development of technology always seems to require new laws and new restrictions and freedoms. If society is changing, the law cannot insist on sticking to the old.
From the above discussion it is clear that Muslims should reconsider their political, economic, educational, legal and social conditions and rebuild them in the light of the moral constraints of Islam. It would be a great mistake to assume that the laws enacted in the early days of Islam will always be applicable. There is a need for a new interpretation and modern interpretation of the old laws, not for the old laws to be applied in new circumstances.
Almost all modern-minded writers have sought refuge in Western universities or research institutes in the last fifty years due to the veil of negligence on the Muslim world. His research books are also generally available in English and French. Their translation and publication in common Muslim languages such as Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Pashto, Turkish, etc. is urgently needed today. Among them are Zia-ud-Din Sardar, Amna Wadud, Mohammad Koon, Jeffrey Long, Taha Jabralwani, Prof. Fazlur Rehman, Murad Hoffman, Saleem Organ, Ahmadim Soya, Nemat Hafiz Barzanji, Syed Hussain Nasr, Aqeel Bulgrami, Qamarul Hadi, Hisham Nazar, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria, Dr. Rafiq Zakir Are important
The above are the authors who have written on Islam and Muslims. There are hundreds of non-Muslim authors whose books will be necessary to understand today’s requirements. Not all of his writings are necessarily compatible with Muslims and Islam. But studying their point of view will lead to broader vision and intellectual maturity. They include Roland Miller, Philip Hitty, Godfrey Johnson, Magnad Desai, Irfan Habib, John Mirshmir, Noam Chomsky, Anne Marie Schmal, Shashi Tharoor, Paul Fundley, Jimmy Carter, Amrita Sen, Arun Dhatti Roy, Muhammad Yunus (Bangladesh economist), Authors such as William Dale Rimple, Alvin Toffler, will be important. The writings of these authors should not be considered in harmony with Muslims and Islam. Rather, his writings reflect a desire for a world based on peace and justice, free from the violence of capitalism, with respect for different cultures and cultures, and with a view to economic development with the protection of the environment.
In addition to translating these books into Islamic languages, Muslims themselves need to focus on the preparation of new literature. In this regard, the first task should be to compile the hadith. In the present (and prevalent) style of compilation, the emphasis is on the chain of transmission and the chain of transmission, rather than on the authenticity of the text of the hadith.
Taqlid and Ijtihad is another important subject that needs attention. The Ummah is lost in many issues. The current sources, which we consider to be the only source of guidance, do not seem to be the solution to the challenges of the diverse exchange of modern human life.
The role of women and the idea of hijab also need to be reconsidered. Currently, the path of individual development of Muslim women is completely blocked. It is important to consider issues such as their role in the economic race and responsibilities, opportunities for political representation and how to use their potential among the people, and how to make it healthier.
Epistemology also needs to be considered. The ideological structure of the current sciences has a tendency towards the West and the desire for political power in the West is evident. These sciences insist on making other religions and cultures subordinate to the West. Therefore, it is important to consider the current pattern of higher education. Western sciences provide an important basis for the current economic, political and social system, so consumerism, material competition, and the relentless use of natural resources continue in its veins.
Another area that needs to be researched is the relationship between scientific inventions and ethics which we can call Bio ethies. Science has created numerous problems that negate the prevailing moral constraints. These include surrogacy, cloning of humans and animals, donation of living and dead human organs, in-vitro fertilization, and more.
Muslim organizations can move forward with solutions to current challenges through research on these topics. If a new generation of thinkers is to be created, research on this and thousands of similar issues will be necessary.
(The author is a Bangalore-based journalist. He holds a postgraduate degree in journalism from the University of Madras and began his journalistic career with the Indian Express Madras in 1979. He has worked for several newspapers, magazines and the BBC World Service.) He is currently a regular contributor to The Hindu and Deccan Herald in Bangalore.